# Pendulum Lab

Topics: Pendulum clock, Pendulum, Square root Pages: 13 (4890 words) Published: March 6, 2011
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The effect of mass, angle and length of string on the period of a pendulum| [Type the document subtitle]|
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Kyle Butler|
3/1/2011|

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The effect of mass, angle and length of string on the period of a pendulum Abstract
The purpose of this lab was to prove the theoretical equation of a pendulum is T=2π(√L/g)and determine if any other factors affect the period of a pendulum. Our hypothesis was that an increase in mass would decrease the period, an increase in angle increase the period and an increase in length of string would increase the period. would a The materials that are needed for this experiment include a photo gate, stand, 10 bobs varying in weight, a role of string, scissors, tape, computer with program for photo gate, protractor, large chart paper, scale, a pencil and a piece of paper. The results produced data with only 6.85% error, we reduced error by using a photo gate and by attempting 3 trials for each set of identical variables and then averaged the results. After the experiment we determined that the period is independent from the mass, that angle may be weakly correlated and that further testing should be done to confirm this point. We also concluded that period is proportional to the square root of length. Introduction

A pendulum is a mass which is suspended by either a rod or string and has one end which is fixed and another that hangs free. The pendulum can be swung back and forth, the time it takes for the pendulum to complete one cycle is called the period. The theoretical equation of a pendulum is T=2π(√L/g). The invention of the pendulum is attributed to Galileo in 1602 (Kurtus). Although the equation does not include any variables other than length of string we wanted to determine in a real life experiment if any other variables affected the period of the pendulum. In this experiment our group determined how mass (mass is how much matter is inside an objected not affected by gravity) , length of wire (the length of string from the bob to the stand) and angle of pendulum (with the vertical) (the angle at which the bob is released in reference to when the string is completely vertical) affected the period of the pendulum (is something attached to a fixed point which can swing freely when released, has a bob attached to bottom of string). In this experiment we had three independent variables (mass, angle, length of wire) (variables which are adjusted are independent of all other factors) and a dependant variable (changes occur in this variable as the independent variable is adjusted) of the period of the pendulum. We preformed 3 different tests, in each we changed one of the independent variables and controlled the other two. There were three hypothesises for this experiment, the first is that as mass is increased the period will decrease. We hypothesized that as mass is increased speed would increase (9.8*M) and therefore the period would decrease. As the angle of the pendulum increased we thought the period would increase because if angle is increased the pendulum would travel a larger distance (total length traveled by an object, it is scalar) and although the speed (distance divided by change in time, it is a scalar quantity) would increase we felt it would not compensate for the increase in distance. As the length of the string increases we thought the period would increase. We thought that as the length was increased the distance the pendulum would increase but speed would not change. Our hypothesises were based on how the change would affect speed and distance. The purpose of this experiment was to determine if the three variables affected the period, how much they affect period and the...