Topics: Health care, Nursing, Health Pages: 16 (3726 words) Published: April 25, 2015

Pender’s Health Promotion Model
Lenny Dortch
Grand Canyon University: NUR 502
January 22, 2012

Pender’s Health Promotion Model
Nola Pender’s Health Promotion Model (HPM) makes important contributions to society by promoting health and wellness through a model of health promotion and prevention (Alligood & Tomey, 2002). Her work has given nurses the foundation to "develop and execute health-promoting interventions to individuals, groups, and families in schools, nursing centers, occupational health settings and the community at large" (McEwen & Wills, 2011, p. 226). Dr. Pender is an icon in the nursing field and is assisting to move nursing from a model where illness is treated after it occurs to a model of preventing illness (Alligood & Tomey, 2002). This paper will show the benefits of incorporating the Health Promotion Model into everyday practice. Description of the theorist

Nola J. Pender was born in 1941 in Lansing, Michigan. In 1962, she began her nursing career by working on a medical-surgical unit. She obtained a Bachelor’s of Science degree in 1964 and a Master’s degree in 1965 while attending Michigan State University (Alligood & Tomey, 2002). Nineteen sixty-nine marks the year she completed her PhD at Northwestern University in Illinois. Dr. Pender has been a nurse educator for more than forty years and she is currently employed at the school of nursing at Loyola University in Chicago, Illinois (

Dr. Pender began studying health promotion in the mid 1970’s. The first publication of her Health Promotion Model (HPM) was in 1982. She developed the model by using the expectancy-value theory and social cognitive theory while applying a nursing perspective to complete the framework (McEwen & Wills, 2011). Dr. Pender has received many awards and honors over the course of time. The University of Michigan has given her a ‘Mae Edna Doyle Teacher of the Year’ award as well as a ‘Distinguished Alumni Award’. In 2005, she received a ‘Lifetime Achievement Award’ from the Midwest Nursing Research Society ( When asked why she developed the HPM she notes: “Very early in my nursing career, it became apparent that health professionals intervened only after people developed acute or chronic health problems. Attention was devoted to treatment. I was convinced that the quality of life of individuals could be greatly improved by preventing problems before they occurred. Further, health care dollars could be saved by promoting healthy lifestyles. I became interested in how people make decisions about health behaviors…I decided that a model was needed that focused on positive sources of motivation for health behaviors” (Pender, The HPM has been utilized in more than fifty research studies and the predicative capability of health promoting was found successful. Many articles have been published using this model to promote healthy lifestyles (Alligood & Tomey, 2002). Classification of the Theory

The Health Promotion Model is classified by McEwen and Wills as a Middle Range Theory. Middle range theories “provide a better basis for generating testable hypotheses and addressing particular client populations” (McEwen & Wills, 2011, p.205). The middle range theories are considered to be somewhere between the abstract or grand theories and the more practice driven or microtheories. When compared to the grand theories it is noted that the middle range theories contain less concepts and tend to limit the area in which they are being applied. They are applied to the nursing profession with greater ease than the grand theories, but are not as narrow as the practice theories. McEwen and Wills (2011) further classify the middle range theories by breaking them into categories based on how the theory was derived. The middle range theories can be derived from research and/or practice, from a grand theory, by combining existing nursing with non-nursing...

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