peer group

Topics: Adolescence, Peer pressure, Peer group Pages: 6 (2259 words) Published: July 8, 2014
1. Peers equals, individuals who are usually of the same gender, age, and social status and who share interests 2. PURPOSE:
Satisfy certain belonging needs
Often preferred to other socializing agents
Influence social, cognitive and psychological development
Influence development of morals and values
The interaction provides instruction on acceptable behavior. Social support- resources provided by others in times of need Validation for the self
Encouragement to try new things
Opportunities for comparison
Enable self-disclosure
Provide identity
Adolescence=
Develop “best friends” and base friendships of closeness of the relationship Peer group activities escalate
Turn to group for “what’s hot now”
“hang out”, talk, watch TV, listen to music, play video games, be seen, see who else is “hanging” with whom, wait for something to happen FRIENDSHIP: autonomous interdependent friendships
Adult influence=
How adults mediate the social interaction within a peer group- competitive or cooperative- influences children’s behavior Adult leadership style influences socialization
PEER ACCCEPTANCE vs REJECTION
Common Behavior Traits
PEER GROUP ORGANIZATION
CLIQUES- mutually connected by doing things together
CROWDS- loosely organized reference groups of cliques
WAYS PEER GROUPS INFLUENCE BEHAVIOR
REINFORCEMENT – giving attention and acceptance
MODELING- imitation, conformity
PUNISHMENT- teasing, physical aggression, rejection
APPRENTICESHIP- the “expert” helps the “novice”
STRATIFY- some individuals more dominant and other submissive DEVELOP NORMS- standards that serve as guidelines
Frustration and competition contribute to hostility
Competition between groups fosters cohesiveness within groups Intergroup hostility can often be reduced by working towards a common goal INFLUENCE
Help learn about the environment
Imaginary situations governed by social rules
An acceptable way to express
Practice skills necessary for adult life
POSITIVE PEER GROUP OUTCOMES
Collaboration
Tutoring
Counseling
Neighborhood affects (positive or negative effects)
NEGATIVE PEER GROUP OUTCOMES
Bullies and Victims
Bully Characteristics
Domination
Physically stronger
Impulsive, low frustration tolerance, easily angered
Rule-breakers
Show little empathy
Positive self-concept
Antisocial behavior
Victim Characteristics
Physically weaker
Show fear of pain
Poor physical coordination
Cautious, sensitive, quiet, passive, submissive, shy
Anxious, insecure, unhappy
Negative self-concept
Relate better to adults than peers
What to do?
Intervention with bullies that do not reinforce harassment
Intervention with victims to alter negative self-concept and to respond in nonreinforcing ways to threats Gangs
-group of people who form an allegiance for a common purpose and engage in unlawful or criminal activity

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Membership in Peer Groups
Despite significant gains in diversity training, current studies continue to show that children are less likely to accept those who are different from themselves. The differences can be as obvious as physical impairments, or as subtle as differences in academic motivation. These rigid standards may create an atmosphere of exclusion for some children and adolescents that pushes them toward peer acceptance of any type. Peer groups offer children and adults alike the opportunity to develop various social skills, such as leadership, sharing or teamwork, and empathy. Peer groups also offer the opportunity to experiment with new roles and interactions, similar to treatment groups, although they are less structured. It is for this reason that many children and adolescents drift from one group to another as they "find themselves," or work toward formation of their relatively permanent identity. Aggression in Peer Groups

Although bullying and teasing have long been part of peer group interactions, these negative behaviors have increased over the last decade,...
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