Pcr and Gel Electrophoresis

Good Essays
Topics: DNA
OUTLINE

What is PCR and Gel Electrophoresis?

• Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique which is used to amplify the number of copies of a specific region of DNA, in order to produce enough DNA to be adequately tested. This technique can be used to identify with a very high-probability, disease-causing viruses and/or bacteria, a deceased person, or a criminal suspect.
• Gel electrophoresis is a widely used technique for separating electrically charged molecules. It is a central technique in molecular biology and genetic laboratories, because it lets researchers separate and purify the nucleic acids DNA and RNA and proteins, so they can be studied individually. Gel electrophoresis is often followed by staining or blotting procedures used to identify the separated molecules.

What is it used for?

• PCR has very quickly become an essential tool for improving human health and human life. Medical research and clinical medicine are profiting from PCR mainly in two areas: detection of infectious disease organisms, and detection of variations and mutations in genes, especially human genes.
• In the world of forensics, gel electrophoresis is used to obtain a DNA fingerprint of a criminal. This means that scientists can accurately tell whether two pieces of DNA, one found at a crime scene and one belonging to a suspect, are matches.

Who invented it?

• Developed in 1983 by Kary Mullis, PCR is now a common and often indispensable technique used in medical and biological research labs for a variety of applications.
• Gel electrophoresis was invented by Fred Sanger in 1975, who received a Nobel Prize for this work.
The Basic Steps of PCR
There are three basic steps in a PCR, which are repeated for 30 or 40 cycles. This is done on an automated cycler, which can heat and cool the tubes with the reaction mixture in a very short time.
The basic PCR steps are:
1. DENATURATION (at 94 degrees C). During this step, the double strand melts open to single

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Good Essays

    1. The central purpose of this paper is to describe all of the methods of how PCR was developed and the results of the experiments involving extraction and amplification of DNA (Mullis et. al. 1986). 2. PCR has the ability to isolate specific DNA sequences with the use of primers. This is done by denaturing the DNA (at 95o C) so it is able to anneal to the primers that specify a fragment to be amplified (Mullis et. at. 1986). These primes anneal to a specific sequence of DNA in order to amplify…

    • 524 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Gel Electrophoresis

    • 384 Words
    • 2 Pages

    In gel electrophoresis, DNA fragments move through a porous matrix made of agarose, a gelatin-like substance purified from seaweed. The agarose is melted like Jell-O® and then poured into a plastic tray to harden into a slab called a gel. A plastic comb inserted at one end while the gel is hardening forms wells where DNA samples can be placed. The DNA is mixed with a loading buffer that contains glycerol—this makes it heavier than water, so it will sink to the bottom of the well. The gel is then…

    • 384 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Gel electrophoresis

    • 551 Words
    • 3 Pages

    visualize DNA molecules and determine their length by using a technique called gel electrophoresis. Introduction to gel electrophoresis In gel electrophoresis, DNA fragments move through a porous matrix made of agarose, a gelatin-like substance purified from seaweed. The agarose is melted like Jell-O and then ® poured into a plastic tray to harden into a slab called a gel. A plastic comb inserted at one end while the gel is hardening forms wells where DNA samples can be placed. The DNA is mixed…

    • 551 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Better Essays

    Gel Electrophoresis

    • 1505 Words
    • 7 Pages

    Laura Gallagher Partner: Rob Einersen Biology Period D Mr. Alvarez 15 February 2013 Gel Electrophoresis Introduction: Agarose Gel Electrophoresis is a process in which the process of determining whether a strand of DNA is either positively or negatively charged. The container in which the gel is stored has a negative and positive side; whichever side the DNA molecules go to means the DNA is charged the opposite way. (Ware, Lunte, Gardiner)For example if a DNA molecule…

    • 1505 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Better Essays

    AGAROSE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS Gel electrophoresis is a widely used technique for the analysis of nucleic acids and proteins. Most every molecular biology research laboratory routinely uses agarose gel electrophoresis for the preparation and analysis of DNA. We will be using agarose gel electrophoresis to determine the presence and size of PCR products. Background: Electrophoresis is a method of separating substances based on the rate of movement while under the influence of an electric field…

    • 1143 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Good Essays

    GEL ELECTROPHORESIS: Go to the following link and work through the virtual lab on the gel electrophoresis process, filling in this worksheet as you go. Submit this worksheet for this week’s lab assignment. http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/labs/gel/ 1. Scientists use ___gel___ _______electrophoresis_____ when they need to sort DNA strands according to length. 2. The gel is a ______filter___________ that sorts DNA strands. 3. Electrophoresis is how we push DNA strands through the gel filter…

    • 253 Words
    • 1 Page
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    2.1.3 Gel Electrophoresis

    • 10502 Words
    • 43 Pages

    Use of this kit presumes and requires prior knowledge of basic methods of gel electrophoresis and staining of DNA. Individuals should use this kit only in accordance with prudent laboratory safety precautions and under the supervision of a person familiar with such precautions. Use of this kit by unsupervised or improperly supervised individuals could result in injury. Limited License: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is protected by patents owned by Hoffman-La Roche, Inc. The purchase price…

    • 10502 Words
    • 43 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Gel Electrophoresis Lab

    • 658 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Gel Electrophoresis Lab SBI4U1 May 13th, 2013 Gel Electrophoresis Lab Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to learn how restriction enzymes cut DNA molecules at specific sequences, thus producing DNA fragments of various lengths. Students learn how fragments form unique patterns, which help to distinguish the base for DNA identification. This lab answers the question “whose DNA was left behind?”. Materials: * Transfer pipets * Agarose Gel * Dyed DNA samples *…

    • 658 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    forensic anthropologists ran a gel electrophoresis with DNA from Skeleton 3 and two missing persons, Julia Ly and Teresa Chen to help in DNA identification. This process would allow restriction enzymes to cut by a specific restriction site and run through the gel, where the DNA fragments would move from the negative side to the positive side of the gel due to the negative charge of the phosphate group in DNA. The smaller the DNA fragments, the further they move down the gel. As mentioned above, the DNA…

    • 695 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Individual report on gel electrophoresis Date: 22/9/2011 Aim: To find the the suspect of the crime by comparing the DNA bands from the two suspects, the victim and the evidence. Results: Suspect 1 Suspect 2 Victim Evidence Suspect 1 Suspect 2 Victim Evidence Wells DNA band Agarose gel (immersed in buffer solution during electrophoresis Wells DNA band Agarose gel (immersed in buffer solution during electrophoresis Deduction: Suspect 2 is excluded as the source the…

    • 250 Words
    • 1 Page
    Satisfactory Essays