Pathophysiology Exam 1: Immunity Objectives
1) Describe the cell functions of the Immune System:
Lymphocytes- small white blood cells that are responsible for much of the work of the immune system. Three types:
Natural Killer Cells-NK cells provide rapid responses to virally infected cells and respond to tumor formation. NK cells are unique bc they have the ability to recognize stressed cells in the absence of antibodies and MHC, allowing for a much faster immune reaction. Trigger phagocytes to the site. Doesn't recognize cells.
T Cells-group of white blood cells that play a role in Cell-mediated response. Mature in the thymus. Two types:
1) Helper T Cell(CD4+)-Regulate and send signals to other types of immune cells, including CD8 killer cells. Initiate and orchestrate immune response
2) Killer T Cell(CD8+)-destroy virally infected cells and tumor cells. They can recognize a specific antigen.
Memory T Cells-located in lymph nodes. Stimulate allergic and autoimmune reactions.
B Cells-part of the humoral response and Adaptive Immunity. make antibodies against antigens, perform the role of antigen-presenting cells, and develop into memory B cells after activation by antigen interaction. Activated by T cell. In bone marrow.
1) Plasma B cells-have been exposed to antigen and secrete large amounts of antibodies
2) Memory B cells-from from activated B cells that are specific to the antigen encountered
Antigen Presenting Cells-group of diverse cell types that assists other cells in immune response. (Macrophages, B cells, and Dentritic Cells).
Dentritic Cells-act as messengers between the innate and adaptive immunity
Macrophages-involved in innate and adaptive immunity and responsible for phagocytosis either as stationary or mobile cells.
Monocytes-replenish macrophages and dentritic cells under normal states and during inflammation, can move quickly to infection and divide into macrophages and dentritic cells.
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