Top-Rated Free Essay

Parts of Speech

Good Essays
Topics: Pronoun, Noun
| English Parts of SpeechThere are eight different English parts of speech, but before we continue any further...What is a Part of Speech?A part of speech is a group of words that are used in a certain way. For example, "run," "jump," and "be" are all used to describe actions/states. Therefore they belong to the VERBS group.

In other words, all words in the English language are divided into eight different categories. Each category has a different role/function in the sentence.

The English parts of speech are:
Nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections.

Same Word – Several Parts of SpeechIn the English language many words are used in more than one way. This means that a word can function as several different parts of speech.

For example, in the sentence "I would like a drink" the word "drink" is a noun. However, in the sentence "They drink too much" the word "drink" is a verb. So it all depends on the word's role in the sentence.

Nouns

A noun is a word that names a person, a place or a thing.

Examples:
Sarah, lady, cat, New York, Canada, room, school, football, reading.

Example sentences:
People like to go to the beach.
Emma passed the test.
My parents are traveling to Japan next month.

The word "noun" comes from the Latin word nomen which means "name," and nouns are indeed how we name people, places and things.
Abstract NounsAn abstract noun is a noun that names an idea, not a physical thing.

Examples:
Hope, interest, love, peace, ability, success, knowledge, trouble.
Concrete NounsA concrete noun is a noun that names a physical thing.

Examples:
Boy, table, floor, coffee, beach, king, rain, children, professor.
Common NounsA common noun is a noun that names a general thing, not a specific thing.

Examples:
Boy, girl, city, country, company, planet, location, war.
Proper NounsA proper noun is a noun that indicates the specific name of a thing. It begins with a capital letter.

Examples:
Robin, Alice, London, Sweden, Google, Earth, Eiffel Tower, Civil War.
(Compare these examples to ones in the "Common nouns" section to see the difference.)
Countable NounsA countable noun is a noun that indicates something you could actually count.

For example, you could count cats: one cat, two cats, three cats...
However, you couldn't count water: one water, two water – no, it doesn't work...

A countable noun has both a singular and a plural form, and it can be used with the indefinite articles (a/an).

Examples:
Window, teacher, tree, lion, eye, cloud, pencil, heart, movie.
Uncountable NounsAn uncountable noun is a noun that indicates something you cannot count.

For example, you could count cats: one cat, two cats, three cats...
However, you couldn't count water: one water, two water – no, it doesn't work...

An uncountable noun has only one form (no plural), and it cannot be used with the indefinite articles (a/an).

Examples:
Furniture, advice, mail, news, equipment, luggage, work, coffee, information.

Pronouns

A pronoun is a word that is used instead of a noun. For example, you could say "Lisa is a nice girl."
Then you could replace the noun "Lisa" with the word "She" and get the following sentence: "She is a nice girl."
"She" is a pronoun.

Examples:
I, he, it, we, them, us, mine, itself.

Example sentences:
He doesn't want go with them.
Would they help us?
His house is bigger than ours.
Who is she?

The word "pronoun" comes from "pro" (in the meaning of "substitute") + "noun."
Personal PronounsPersonal pronouns represent people or things. The personal pronouns are: I, you, he, she, it, we, they, me, him, her, us, them.
Demonstrative Pronouns"Demonstrative" means "showing, making something clear."

Demonstrative pronouns point to things. The demonstrative pronouns are: this, that, these, those.

Use "this" and "these" to talk about things that are near in space or in time.
Use "that" and "those" to talk about things that are farther away in space or time.

Example sentence:
This cannot go on.
That was beautiful!
He wanted those, but decided to compromise on these.
Interrogative Pronouns"Interrogative" means "used in questions."

Interrogative pronouns are used to ask questions. The interrogative pronouns are: who, whom, which, what, whoever, whatever, etc.

Use "who" and "whom" to talk about people.
Use "which" and "what" to talk about animals and things.

Example sentences:
Who is your father?
Whom did you speak to?
Which bag did you buy?
What are my choices?
Possessive Pronouns"Possessive" means "showing ownership."

Possessive pronouns indicate that something belongs to somebody/something. The possessive pronouns are: my, your, his, her, its, our, their, mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs.

Example sentences:
I've lost my wallet.
He married his girlfriend.
This place is theirs.
Is that cat yours?
My car is slow. Hers is much faster.
Relative Pronouns"Relative" means "connected with something."

Relative pronouns are pronouns that link different parts of a sentence.
The relative pronouns are: who, whom, which, that, whoever, etc.

Examples sentences:
The girl who called yesterday came to see you.
The teacher whom you wrote has answered your questions.
She lives in Kiev, which is the capital city of Ukraine.
I really liked the book that you gave me.
Reflexive Pronouns"Reflexive" means "going back to itself."

Reflexive pronouns show that the action affects the person who performs the action. Reflexive pronouns end in "-self" (singular) or "-selves" (plural). The reflexive pronouns are: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, themselves. Example sentences:
He cut himself while shaving.
I sent myself to bed.
He could hurt himself!
We must help ourselves.
She trusts herself.
Intensive Pronouns"Intensive" means "giving force or emphasis."

An intensive pronoun is a pronoun used for emphasis. In other words, Intensive pronouns emphasis the subject of the sentence. They are written exactly the same way as the reflexive nouns, but their function is different.

I myself baked the cake.
The queen herself recommended this restaurant.
Have you yourself been there?
The project itself wasn't difficult.
We will do it ourselves.
Indefinite Pronouns "Indefinite" means "not exact, not limited."

Indefinite pronouns are pronouns that do not refer to any specific person or thing.

Examples:
Anything, everybody, another, each, few, many, none, some.

Example sentences:
Many have died during the war.
Can anyone call her?
Everybody wants to see you.
Something can be done to help.

Adjectives

An adjective is a word that describes a person or thing.

Examples:
Big, pretty, expensive, green, round, French, loud, quick, fat.

Example sentences:
He has big blue eyes.
The new car broke down.
The old lady was talking in a quiet voice.

The word "adjective" comes from the Latin word jacere, which means "to throw."Different Types of adjectivesAdjectives can be divided into several types:

Opinion
Nice, pretty, stupid, original, expensive, etc.

Size
Big, small, large, tiny, enormous, little, etc.

Age
Young, old, new, ancient, antique, etc.

Shape
Round, square, flat, straight, etc.

Color
Blue, red, white, black, dark, bright, yellowish, etc.

Origin
Italian, British, Mexican, western, southern, etc.

Material
Metal, wooden, plastic, golden, etc.DeterminersA determiner is a word that comes before a noun to show which person or thing you are talking about.

Examples:
A, an, the, my, your, some, any, several, enough, any.

Example sentences:
I have a red hat.
Please give me my bag.
Some people decided to leave.
She doesn't want any money.
They watched several movies.

Some people consider determiners to be a type of adjective. What's special about determiners is that you usually can use only one determiner at a time.

Incorrect: He has the my ticket.
Correct: He has my ticket / He has the ticket.Nouns that act like adjectivesSometimes nouns function as adjectives. In other words, they come before another noun and describe it.

Examples:
Sports car
Orange juice
Television station
Coffee shop
Book cover
The order of adjectivesA noun can have several adjectives describing it.

Examples:
"She bought a new red Italian table."
"He is a great, successful father."

There are certain rules on the correct order of those adjectives.

This is the order you should generally follow:
Determiner -> opinion -> size -> age -> shape -> color
-> origin -> material -> a word describing purpose/function
Examples:
A nice little coffee shop
(Determiner -> opinion -> size -> purpose/function word)

My huge new swimming pool
(Determiner -> size -> age -> purpose/function word)

Several Chinese plastic cups
(Determiner -> origin -> material)

The round yellow ball
(Determiner -> shape -> color)

Adjectives from the same type:
When you have several adjectives from the same type, you should separate them with commas or a conjunction (and, but).

Examples:
A cheap, good meal
A happy, smart man
The beautiful, original painting
My nice and sweet cat
An expensive but important tripComparative adjectives"Comparative" means "comparing something to something else."

Comparative adjective show us which thing is better, worse, stronger, weaker, and so forth.

Examples:
Better, worse, bigger, smaller, nicer, fatter, thiner, more dangerous.

Example sentences:
She is a better student than her brothers.
The test was worse than I've expected.
You are stronger than me.
He seems healthier.
You are more beautiful than her.
Superlative adjectives"Superlative" means "of the highest degree."

Superlative adjectives show us which thing is the best, the strongest, and so forth.

Examples:
Best, worst, strongest, smallest, cheapest, most expensive.

Example sentences:
You are my best friend.
This is the worst day of my life.
Even the smallest donation helps.
This is the most expensive restaurant I've ever heard of.

VerbsA verb is a word or group of words that express an action or a state.

Examples:
Go, jump, sleep, eat, think, be, change, become, drive, complete.

Example sentences:
We had a nice lunch.
I think that he is right.
He drove for hours.

The word "verb" comes for the Latin word verbum, which means "word."
Auxiliary Verbs (also called "helping verbs")

Auxiliary verbs are verbs that are used together with the main verb of the sentence to express the action or state.

Main verb + auxiliary verb = complete idea

The main auxiliary verbs are: be, am, is, are, was, were, do, did, have, has, had.

Example sentences (the auxiliary verb is bold, and the main verb is underlined):
They are jogging.
She was sitting.
We were waiting for hours.
Is she sleeping?
He didn't know the answer.
We have gone a long way.
Has she received any of my letters?
Do you smoke?
Will she help?
Compound VerbsA compound verb = auxiliary verb + main verb.

Examples: was playing, has eaten, doesn't want.

They were discussing their future.
He didn't tell us the truth.
I have finished my homework.
She will meet us there.
Stative Verbs
Stative verbs are verbs that express a state rather than an action.

Examples: be, seem, love, own, want, sound, have, know, understand.

Examples sentences:
She is a great wife.
He seems rather strange.
He wanted to see you.
That sounds awesome!
We have enough things to do.

Stative verbs are usually not used in the progressive tenses.

Examples:
Incorrect: He is wanting to see you.
Correct: He wants to see you.

Incorrect: I am knowing what to do.
Correct: I know what to do.

Incorrect: They are seeming nice.
Correct: They seem nice.

However, if the same verb is used to describe an actual action (not a state) than it can be used in the progressive tenses.

Example:
When the verb "have" means "own" – it is a state. So we do not use it in the progressive tenses.

Incorrect: I am having a laptop.
Correct: I have a laptop.

When the verb "have" means "eat" – it is an actual action. So we can use it in the progressive tenses.

Correct: I am having lunch with Kate.
Correct: I have lunch with Kate.
Dynamic VerbsDynamic verbs are the opposite of stative verbs. They express a real action.

Examples:
Jump, swim, catch, write, call, sleep, hit, open, speak.

Example sentences:
They swam to the other side.
She hit me on the head!
Open the window, please.

The dynamic verbs can be used in the progressive tenses.

Correct: He is drinking water.
Correct: He drinks water.
Regular VerbsRegular verbs are verbs that follow this rule:
Past form of the verb = present form of the verb + ed / d.

Examples:
Past form of "check" = check + ed = checked.
Past form of "open" = open + ed = opened.
Past form of "bake" = bake + d = baked.

There are certain rules to adding "d" or "ed" to a verb. Read about them in the Regular Verbs and Irregular Verbs section.
Irregular VerbsIrregular verbs are verbs that do not follow the above rule, and there are quite a lot of them!

Examples:
Past form of "drink" = drank.
Past form of "sleep" = slept.
Past form of "bring" = brought.
Phrasal Verbs
A phrasal verb is a verb that is combined with an adverb or a preposition. The combination creates a new meaning.

Examples:
Run = to move very quickly with your legs. ("She can run fast!")
Into = in the direction of something. ("He looked into my eyes.")
Run into = to meet someone by accident. (I ran into Joe yesterday.")

Make = to create or do something. (He made a lot of noise.)
Up = to a higher point. ("Look up!")
Make up = invent (a story, an excuse). ("It has never happened. He made the whole thing up!")

Put = to place something somewhere. ("Could you put this upstairs?")
Up = to a higher point. ("Look up!")
With = concerning ("She is happy with her workplace.")
Put up with = to tolerate. ("I cannot put up with his behavior any more!")

Adverbs
An adverb is a word that describes or gives more information about a verb, an adjective, another adverb, or even the entire sentence.
Adverbs usually answer the following questions: Where? Home. ("I went home.")
When? Yesterday. ("We met yesterday.")
How? Slowly. ("The turtle moves slowly.")
How often? Sometimes. ("Sometimes it stops responding.")
How long? Temporally. (She stays with us temporally.")
How likely? Surely. (Our team will surely win!")
To what degree? Very. ("She was very pleased.")

An adverb can describe a verb:
She runs quickly.

An adverb can describe an adjective:
She is so beautiful.

An adverb can describe another adverb:
She smokes very rarely.

An adverb can describe an entire sentence:
Naturally, you don't have to come.

The word "adverb" comes for the Latin ad- (in addition) and verbum (word).
In many cases (but not always!) adverbs have the following form:Adjective + "-ly"
Examples:
Quick + ly = quickly
Strange + ly = strangely
Dead + ly = deadly
Sudden + ly = suddenly
Clever + ly = cleverly
Brave + ly = bravely
Real + ly = really

When an adjective ends with "y" replace the "y" with an "i":
Heavy + ly = heavi + ly = heavily
Happy + ly = happi + ly = happily

When the adjective ends with an "e" drop the "e":
True + ly = tru + ly = truly However, there are many adverbs that do not end in "-ly":
Fast, very, hard, home, just, too, well, never, sometimes, and so forth.
We can divided English adverbs into several categories:
Adverbs of degreeAdverbs of degree show us the strength or degree of the action or state. They answer the following questions:
How much? To what degree?

Examples:
Very, highly, totally, perfectly, partially, almost.

Example sentences:
He is very concerned with you.
You are totally right.
We almost made it to the train.
Adverbs of mannerAdverbs of manner show us the way the action is done. They answer the following question:
How?

Examples:
Well, badly, nicely, slowly, loudly, quietly, happily, sadly, secretly, weakly.

Example sentences:
He handled the situation well.
She listened secretly to their conversation.
The children ran happily to their father.
Adverbs of placeAdverbs of place show us the location of the action or state. They answer the following question:
Where?

Examples:
Home, here, there, outside, inside, away, around, anywhere, abroad, up, down, out.

Example sentences:
We are here.
He went home.
We found him outside.
She looked up.
Adverbs of timeAdverbs of time show us the time of the action or state. They answer the following question:
When?

Examples:
Now, soon, later, yesterday, tomorrow, early, before, lately, recently.

Example sentence:
Let's talk now.
I will do it later.
He promised to write back soon.
What are you doing tomorrow?
We haven't met before.
Adverbs of frequencyAdverbs of frequency show us the frequency of the action or state. They answer the following question:
How often?

Examples:
Always, never, sometimes, often, rarely, usually, occasionally.

Example sentences:
I always brush my teeth after a meal.
We often meet and chat.
He is usually here on time.
Adverbs of durationAdverbs of duration show us the length of the action or state.
They answer the following question:
For how long?

Examples:
Forever, constantly, temporarily, briefly.

Example sentence:
He works there temporarily.
We spoke briefly.
I will be forever grateful.
Adverbs of probabilityAdverbs of probability show us the chances for the action or state to happen. They answer the following question:
How likely?

Examples:
Certainly, maybe, probably, possibly, surely.

Example sentences:
She will certainly forget about it.
Maybe we'll come after all.
It will probably not work.
Surely you are not serious!
Comparative adverbs"Comparative" means "comparing something to something else."

Comparative adverbs show us which action or state is better, worse, stronger, weaker, and so forth.

Examples: more, less, better, worse, faster, slower, farther, closer.

Example sentences:
Maggie works out more seriously than Donna.
She eats less than her friends.
You are better than this.
We couldn't go slower even if we wanted to.
Let's get closer.
Superlative adverbs"Superlative" means "of the highest degree."

Superlative adverbs show us which action or state is the best, the strongest, and so forth.

Examples:
Best, most, least, worst, strongest, fastest, slowest.

Example sentences:
He knows best.
It was the most boring experience.
He shouted the strongest so he won.
He ran the slowest so he lost.Prepositions

A preposition is a word that is used before a noun or a pronoun to connect it to another word in the sentence. It is usually used to show location, direction, time, and so forth.

Examples:
On, in, at, by, under, above, beside, to, out, from, for.

Example sentences:
I sat on the floor.
Let's go into the house.
We will meet at four o'clock.
Have a look under the couch.
He went to school.
This letter is for you.

The word "preposition" comes from the Latin word praeponere (put before). So prepositions usually come before the noun/pronoun.ConjunctionsA conjunction is a word that joins parts of a sentence together.

Examples:
And, but, or, because, so.

Example sentences:
I want to come, but I can't.
She is smart and beautiful.
Would you like a cat or a dog?
He didn't pass the test because he didn't understand the subject.
We were hungry, so we ordered pizza.

The word "conjunction" comes from the Latin word conjungere (join together).InterjectionsAn interjection is a short sound, word or phrase used to express the speaker's emotion.

Examples:
Oh! Look out! Ow! Hey! Wow! Ah! Um...

Example sentences:
Wow, that's amazing!
Ah, that was a good meal.
Um... I'm not sure what to say.
Oh dear! What happened?
Hello! How are you doing?
Well, that's an option too.

The word "interjection" comes from the Latin word interjicere (throw between).
Final Words on the English Parts of SpeechIf you ever find yourself wondering which part of speech a certain word is, the best solution is to check it out in a dictionary. The dictionary will give you the answer you need, together with examples on how to use the word. And that is priceless!
English Parts of Speech Summary Table Part of Speech | Explanation | Examples | Nouns | A word that names a person, a place or a thing | Boy, Sam, cat, Paris | Pronouns | A word that is used instead of a noun | He, my, yourself | Adjectives | A word that describes a person or thing | pretty, easy, fat | Verbs | A word or group of words that express an action or a state | go, jump, be, think | Adverbs | A word that describes or gives more information about a verb, an adjective, another adverb, or even the entire sentence | quickly, tomorrow, outside | Prepositions | A word that is used before a noun or a pronoun to connect it to another word in the sentence. It is usually used to show location, direction, time, and so forth. | on, in, to, from, of | Conjunctions | A word that joins parts of a sentence together | and, or, but | Interjections | A short sound, word or phrase used to express the speaker's emotion. | Wow, hmm, well, oh dear | |

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Good Essays

    Parts of Speech

    • 469 Words
    • 2 Pages

    idea of the traditional eight parts of speech comes to mind, flashbacks to sitting in the back row of my middle school English language class flourish through my brain. I don't remember too much about them today, however I do know that it was drilled into my brain until we could fully understand and use them all. The eight parts of speech: such a key component of language, yet such a complicated piece of my learning career. Out of all eight of the parts of speech, the verb, the noun, the pronoun…

    • 469 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Parts of Speech

    • 1368 Words
    • 6 Pages

    Essay: Parts of Speech The term “word” is part of everyone’s vocabulary. Words are often viewed as units of meaning, such as when someone shouts “Fire!”, or as units of sentence structure, for instance when one is analyzing a sentence comprised of more than one word. Traditionally, these building blocks of language have been categorized under the label “parts of speech”. Members of the Indo-European group of languages have been analyzed in terms of parts of speech categories since classical antiquity…

    • 1368 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Parts of Speech

    • 2460 Words
    • 10 Pages

    PARTS OF SPEECH: “Parts of speech” are the basic types of words that English has. It is important to be able to recognize and identify the different types of words in English, so that you can understand grammar explanations and use the right word form in the right place. Here is a brief explanation of what the parts of speech are: Noun A noun is a naming word. It names a person, place, thing, idea, living creature, quality, or action. Examples: cowboy, theatre, box, thought, tree, kindness…

    • 2460 Words
    • 10 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    Parts of speech

    • 768 Words
    • 4 Pages

    Parts of Speech In grammar, a part of speech (also a word class, a lexical class, or a lexical category) is a linguistic category of words (or more precisely lexical items), which is generally defined by the syntactic or morphological behavior of the lexical item in question. Common linguistic categories include noun and verb, among others. There are open world classes which constantly acquire new members, and closed word classes, which acquire new members infrequently if at all. Almost all languages…

    • 768 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Parts of Speech

    • 505 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Identify Parts of Speech 1 It is not important that you be able to identify every part of speech in every sentence. You have developed a sufficient command of the tools of the trade, or the parts of speech, if you can identify the part of speech of each word underlined in the paragraphs below. Observe how the words are used in these sentences before filling in the blanks with noun, pronoun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, or conjunction. The world is full of highly competent, intelligent…

    • 505 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Parts of Speech

    • 1208 Words
    • 5 Pages

    based on eight parts of speech: the verb, the noun, the pronoun, the adjective, the adverb, the preposition, the conjunction, and the interjection. Each part of speech explains not what the word is, but how the word is used. In fact, the same word can be a noun in one sentence and a verb or adjective in the next. The next few examples show how a word 's part of speech can change from one sentence to the next, and following them is a series of sections on the individual parts of speech, followed by…

    • 1208 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Part of Speech

    • 5199 Words
    • 21 Pages

    POSTGRADUATE ISLAMIA COLLEGE FOR WOMEN, COOPER ROAD, LAHORE Submitted to: Submitted by: Submission Date:15th October, 2012 English Assignment Part of Speech CONTENTS Sr. No. | Topic | Page | 1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9.10.11.12.13. | Introduction ……………………………………………………………………….Parts of Speech Table ……………………………………………………………..Part of Speech ……………………………………………………………………..Noun ……………………………………………………………………………….Types of Noun …………………………………………………………….Pronouns …………………………………………………………………………..Types of Pronoun…

    • 5199 Words
    • 21 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    Parts of Speech

    • 834 Words
    • 4 Pages

    PARTS OF SPEECH QUIZ IF YOU PASS WITH AN 85%, YOU WILL BE DONE WITH THIS SECTION. IF YOU DO NOT PASS, DO NOT FRET, AS WE WILL RETAKE UNTIL WE ACHIEVE MASTERY. ( Use for questions 1-6-- The class laughed loudly. 1. Which word is a noun in the above sentence? A. laughed B. class C. loudly 2. Which word is an adverb in the above sentence? A. laughed B. class C. loudly 3. Which word is a verb in the above sentence?…

    • 834 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Parts of speech

    • 426 Words
    • 2 Pages

    Connective Devices Within the body of your speech, you need clear internal structure. Connectives are devices used to create a clear flow between ideas and points within the body of your speech; they serve to tie your writing together. Think of connectives as hooks and ladders for the audience to use when moving from point-to-point within the body of your work. These devices help re-focus the minds of audience members and remind them of which main point your information is supporting. The four…

    • 426 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Part of Speech

    • 1563 Words
    • 7 Pages

    Parts Of Speech: Pronouns * PRONOUN: a word that replaces a noun without specifying a name. * He was tired. In this sentence, he is the pronoun, replacing the name of the person who was tired (Jack was tired) or some other identifier (The boy was tired). * ANTECEDENT: the word to which a pronoun refers. * Because Jack left in a hurry, he forgot his lunch. In this sentence, Jack is the antecedent and he is the pronoun. Types of pronoun * DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS: the…

    • 1563 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays