Parliamentary vs. Presidential form of Government
1) Parliamentary form of Government in the UK
a) What is the Parliamentary form of Government?
b) Essential features
c) Advantages and Disadvantages of this type
2) Presidential form of Government in the USA
d) What is the Presidential form of Government?
e) Essential features
f) Advantages and Disadvantages of this type
3) Comparison between the two types
Parliamentary form of Government
What is the Parliamentary form of Government?
This system of Government is named after the term ‘Parliament’ which is derived from the French expression ‘parlement’ which means ‘speaking’. This form of Government can be traced back to the medieval days when the King of England had to consult the Great Council of Barons (the British nobles). By the mid-14th century the Parliament/Council was organised into two Houses-the House of Commons and the House of Lords. And in the course of time, the House of Commons became an assembly of representatives of the people. The United Kingdom is a unitary democracy governed within the framework of a constitutional monarchy, in which the Monarch is the head of state and the is the head of the Government. The Monarch enjoys only nominal powers. The real power lies with the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister, which is responsible to the House of Commons. The British Queen acts on the advice of the Council of Ministers. Legislative power is vested in the two chambers of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the House of Commons and the House of Lords, as well as in the Scottish Parliament and Welsh and Northern Ireland assemblies. This system is called the Parliamentary form of Government since under this system the Parliament is supreme. Under this system there is a close relationship between the Executive and the Legislature. In fact, the Executive is a part of the Legislature-the Executive is formed out of the elected members of the House of Commons. A Parliamentary system may be a bicameral system with two chambers of Parliament : an elected lower house, and an upper house or House of Lords which may be appointed or elected by a different mechanism from the lower house. Another possibility is a unicameral system with just one Parliamentary chamber. The UK follows a bicameral system. Essential Features:
1) The Monarch:
* Currently Queen Elizabeth II is the head of state in Britain. Her power is almost totally symbolic, as it is in all the other European monarchies today. She doesn’t have much work except to open and closes Parliament and give the Royal Assents to bills from Parliament. The Monarch is unlikely to decline this assent, and the last time the Royal Assent was refused was in 1707. Although t is in the Queens’s power to withhold assent. * She is the one who appoints the Prime Minister, and is also the Head of the Armed Forces. * The State Opening of Parliament is an event in the United Kingdom that marks the commencement of a session of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and includes a Speech from the Queen. 2) House of Commons:
* As of 2010 it has 650 members all elected by the citizens of the UK. * Bills may be introduced in either house, though controversial bills normally originate in the House of Commons. The supremacy of the Commons in Legislative matters is assured by the Parliament Acts, under which certain types of bills may be presented for the Royal Assent without the consent of the House of Lords. Only the House of Commons may originate bills concerning taxation or supply. Furthermore, supply bills passed by the House of Commons are immune to amendments in the House of Lords. The House of Commons also has to approve proposals for Government taxes and spending. House of Commons is clearly the more powerful branch of Parliament. 3) House of Lords:
* As of 2011 it has 753 members...
Bibliography: * Oxford History The Trail Book
* APC Modern Indian History Contemporary World and Civics Class X
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