HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
PARENTAL ATTACHMENT AND EMOTIONAL
A PAPER SUBMITTED TO
PROFESSOR DAPHNE WASHINGTON
DEPARTMENT OF COUNSELLING IN FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR
PAMELA E. CAMERON
VIRGINIA, USA AUGUST 16, 2013
Parental attachment is a foundational part of human development. There are various patterns of development; each pattern affects the overall be-havior of the child. The early bond between infant and parent is crucial, though research reveals that some parents are unaware of the critical role attachment plays in infant development. Such lack of awareness causes the destabilization of the structure that creates emotional connection be-tween child and parent, which can affect the child in negative ways as she or he grows, including criminal activity, substance abuse, and gang activities. Related factors that may lead a child to engage in these activi-ties include the influence of parental alcoholism, drug abuse, domestic violence, and divorce, as well as child abuse and neglect. My continuing focus will demonstrate how a positive emotional influence beginning in infancy can impact the adult. The positive outcome of emotional at-tachment is manifested in outcomes such as social competency, academic achievement, spiritual fulfillment, and emotional stability.
Key word: Delinquency, infant, emotional attachment, influence, sta-bility
Parental attachment is an important aspect of lifespan development; this attachment begins at the stage of infancy, and is a close emotional bond between infant and caregivers (mother). How caregivers respond to these needs has a life span impact on the development and maintenance of all relationships. Attachment theory places emphasises on the notion that who we are is subjected to the connection we have with others. “Our past relationship with others becomes organized into patterns that tend to repeat again and again. Both positive and problematic aspects of self can often be traced back to critical events in a person’s life that is later manifested as behaviors, thoughts, and feelings. The understanding of life span developmental history will help to assist clients through the process of change and growth. Ivey, Myers, & Sweeney (2005) Although previous reports have also associate early parental attachment to the needs of the child, however attachment patterns in infancy contin-ues to have lasting effects. Freud made contributions to infant develop-ment in his theory of psychosexual development. In the oral stage, infants develop an attachment with parents, and the provision of oral needs determines the level of attachment. In examining Freud’s assertions, this argument will focus on essential factors in emotional attachment and long-term development, and how this process develops throughout the lifespan and positively or negatively affects the child and parent. The stability of the attachment patterns in infancy summarizes the out-come of key long term studies, “ secure versus insecure Strange Situation Classification at 12 months accorded with AA1 classifications in adulthood 68-75% of the time : “ this is an unparalleled level of consis-tency between behavior observed in infancy and outcomes in adulthood. Feldman (2011) The result of this study signifies a change in the way emotional devel-opmental research is carried out and the effect of parental attachment. Recent data and research have provided the link between relationships and emotional experience in both children and adults. In the conclusion of this paper the importance of a secure infant and parental will be highlighted. Although previous reports have also associate early parental at-tachment to the needs of the child, however attachment patterns in in-fancy continues to have lasting...
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