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Parent Child

Topics: High school / Pages: 12 (2934 words) / Published: Jul 22nd, 2013
Title: Parent- Child Relationship and Academic Performance of Students in Core Gateway College


Development of a student is not as simple as others think it is. His life among his peers and among members of his family undergo several stages. His relationship is the basis for his achievement or failure in his education and his development. Adolescence has always been a critical period for every individual. This “problem age” as labeled by most experts in the study of human development is brought about by a number of factors ranging from the physical to the psychological. One of these is the relationship with the people around them. The most important figures in his life at the moment, undoubtedly, are his parents. In the Philippines, one can say that there are many problems of high schools students such as misbehavior, drop-outs and low academic achievement. (Aguinaldo, 1995) noted that problems such as poor quality of parent and child relationships, poor father and mother relationship, unhealthy home environment affect students’ performance in school. The researcher is interested in this research focus to find out the quality of the students’ relationship with parents as perceived by the students. It seeks to find out why adolescents sometimes have behavioral problems in school. This research can help parents perform their vital role in establishing a good relationship with their children and can even make them understand their children’s expectations.
Theoretical/ Conceptual Framework Theoretically, the concept was explained by David Mcclleland. According to this theory, man strives to improve the quality of his task due to achievement motivation. The higher the achievement motivation, the higher the achievement would be. Conversely, the lower the achievement motivation, the lower the achievement would be. On the other hand, the Affiliation Need says that man is basically gregarious. They need to be close to others physically and emotionally. This was the need to be with others, a need for friendly relationships and was motivated towards interaction with other people. The conceptual paradigm shows the hypothetical relationship between the independent and dependent variables. It is perceived that the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents affect their present relationship with their parents. Likewise, it is also perceived that students’ relationship with parents affect their academic performance. It may be because at this stage, adolescents often feel they are misunderstood and often seek affection, security and attention. At this point in their life, they expect that parents should give them love, sympathy and understanding. Finally, the paradigm also shows the perceived relationship of the socio-demographic characteristics and academic performance of students.

Research Paradigm

Independent Variable Dependent Variable

Socio-demographic characteristics of the student * age * birth order * year level * annual family income * gender * educational attainment of parents

Student’s Academic Performance

Parent-Child Relationships (father-child & mother-child) * warmth * permissive * restrictive * hostile

Figure 1. The hypothetical relationship of the independent and dependent variables

Statement of the Problem

Generally, this study sought to determine the kind of parent-child relationships and academic performance of the students in Core Gateway College.
The specific problems are as follows: 1. What are the socio-demographic characteristics of the students in terms of age, birth order, year level, annual family income, gender and educational attainment of parents? 2. How may parent-child (father-child and mother-child) relationships be described? 3. Do the students’ parent-child relationship of their fathers and mothers differ? 4. What is the academic performance of the students in terms of his academic grade point average? 5. Is there a relationship between the students’ socio-demographic characteristics and 6.1 parent-child relationships 6.2 academic performance in school 6. Is there a relationship between the students’ kind of parent-child relationship and their academic performance in school?
Hypothesis of the Study The hypothesis of the study are: 1. Students’ assessment of his/ her parent-child relationship with the father and the mother do not significantly differ. 2. There is no significant relationship between the students’ socio-demographic characteristics and 3.1 kind of parent-child relationships 3.2 academic performance in school 3. There is no significant relationship between the students’ kind of parent-child relationships and their academic performance in school.
Significance of the Study
The youth nowadays need guidance. They need someone with whom they can depend, trust and with whom they can feel at ease even when they make mistakes.
The study is expected to yield significant insights into the quality of parent-child relationships among the respondents which are indicators of the performance of students in school.
To the parents, the findings would de significant since they are the ones who are actually concerned about the children particularly at home. It can help them perform their vital role in establishing a good relationship with their children. The study can even make them understand the psychological expectations of their children and consequently can help their children achieve maturity and dexterity in several dimensions of their lives.
Teachers and guidance counselors will have a ready reference of students’ home climate that will be drawn from the findings of the study. Information relative to the students can be stored in the school’s guidance office which teachers can make use of as baseline information on whatever classroom guidance activities that should be undertaken.
The information to be gathered will help teachers prioritize on their inculcation of values the areas needing improvements thus, students will be expected to project behaviors that will be worthy of admiration.
Success in the teaching-learning process can be attained with ease when teachers are cognizant of basic information of their students’ needs, specifically those conditions and situations needing attention. Consequently, students will become more adjusted in their day to day interactions both in their homes and in school. Feelings of security and self- confidence among students will emerge and success in school work finds its assurance.
Scope and Limitations of the Study
This study seeks to investigate whether the kind of parent- child relationships the students are presently experiencing affect their academic performance in school. This is limited to students’ perception of his/ her relationship with their father and mother. Perception of parents toward their children is not included.
This will involve third and fourth year high school students in Core Gateway College. Thirty percent of the total population of the two high school levels will be selected randomly using draw lots.
Operational Definition of Terms
Year level- refers to whether the respondents are third year or fourth year high school
Age- refers to the actual age of the students as of the last birthday
Birth order- refers to whether the student is first child, second child, third child…
Gender- refers to whether the student is male or female
Annual Family Income-
Educational attainment- refers to whether the parents of the respondents is elementary. High school or college graduate
Parent-child relationships- refers to the quality of interactions prevailing between the students and their parents classified as warmth, hostile, restrictive and permissive. Using the likert scale, the related questions will be classified as always, most of the time, a few times and never. The rating will be used to measure the kind of parent-child relationship of the students. Means will be described using the following scale: Very low - 1.00-1.75 Low - 1.76-2.50 High - 2.51-3.25
Very high - 3.26-4.00
Warmth relationship- refers to the parents’ affectionate, accepting, approving, understanding and child-centered behaviors .Questions regarding the warmth relationship between the father and the child will be measured through items number 1,5,9,13, and 17 while items number 2,5,9,13, and 17 will be used to measure the warmth relationship between the mother and the child. Means of the questions will be described using the following scale: Very low - 1.00-1.75 Low - 1.76-2.50 High - 2.51-3.25
Very high - 3.26-4.00
Hostile relationship- refers to the parents’ cold, rejecting, disapproving, self- centered and highly punitive behaviors. Questions regarding the father-child relationship will be measured through items number 2,6,10,14, and 18 and numbers 1,6,10,14, and 18 on mother-child relationship. Means of the will be described using the following scale: Very low - 1.00-1.75 Low - 1.76-2.50 High - 2.51-3.25
Very high - 3.26-4.00
Restrictive relationship- refers to dependency/ well- controlled, socialized behaviors. This will be measured through items number 3,7,11,15, and 19 on the father-child relationship and numbers 4,8,12,16, and 20 on the mother-child relationship. Means of will be described using the following scale: Very low - 1.00-1.75 Low - 1.76-2.50 High - 2.51-3.25
Very high - 3.26-4.00
Permissive relationship- refers to outgoing, sociable and assertive behaviors. It will be measured through items number 4,8,12,16, and 20 on the father-child relationship and items number 3,7,11,15, and 19 on the mother-child relationship .Means will be described using the following scale: Very low - 1.00-1.75 Low - 1.76-2.50 High - 2.51-3.25
Very high - 3.26-4.00
Academic performance- refers to the grade point average of the students which will be described using the following: 96- 100 - Outstanding 91-95 - Very good 85-90 - Good 80-84 - Satisfactory 75-79 - Sufficient 65-74 - Failed


Foreign Literature Parental involvement in a child's early education is consistently found to be positively associated with a child's academic performance (Hara & Burke, 1998; Hill & Craft, 2003; Marcon, 1999). Specifically, children whose parents are more involved in their education have higher levels of academic performance than children whose parents are involved to a lesser degree. The influence of parent involvement on academic success has not only been noted among researchers, but also among policy makers who have integrated efforts aimed at increasing parent involvement into broader educational policy initiatives. Researchers have reported that parent-child interactions, specifically stimulating and responsive parenting practices, are important influences on a child's academic development (Christian, Morrison, & Bryant, 1998; Committee on Early Childhood Pedagogy, 2000). By examining specific parenting practices that are amenable to change, such as parent involvement, and the mechanisms by which these practices influence academic performance, programs may be developed to increase a child's academic performance. While parent involvement has been found to be related to increased academic performance, the specific mechanisms through which parent involvement exerts its influence on a child's academic performance are not yet fully understood (Hill & Craft, 2003). Understanding these mechanisms would inform further research and policy initiatives and may lead to the development of more effective intervention programs designed to increase children's academic performance. Parent involvement has been defined and measured in multiple ways, including activities that parents engage in at home and at school and positive attitudes parents have towards their child's education, school, and teacher (Epstein, 1996; Grolnick & Slowiaczek, 1994; Kohl, Lengua, & McMahon, 2000). The distinction between the activities parents partake in and the attitude parents have towards education was highlighted by several recent studies. Several studies found that increased frequency of activities was associated with higher levels of child misbehavior in the classroom (Izzo, Weissberg, Kasprow, & Fendrich, 1999), whereas positive attitudes towards education and school were associated with the child's increased academic performance (Rimm-Kaufman, Pianta, Cox, & Bradley, 2003). Specifically, Izzo et al. (1999) reported that an increase in the parent's school activities, such as increased number of parent-teacher contacts, was associated with worsening achievement, as increased contacts may have occurred to help the teacher manage the child's existing behavior problems. The significance of parent attitudes toward education and school is less well understood, although attitudes are believed to comprise a key dimension of the relationship between parents and school (Eccles & Harold, 1996). Parents convey attitudes about education to their children during out-of-school hours and these attitudes are reflected in the child's classroom behavior and in the teacher's relationship with the child and the parents (Kellaghan, Sloane, Alvarez, & Bloom, 1993). Parenting styles have also been associated with academic successes (Hurrelmann1996). More specifically, authoritarian and permissive parenting styles have been associated with poor academic grades, college adjustment and self-esteem of adolescents (Lamborn, Mouts and Steinberg,1995). Dodder (1995) found that most school related conflict between parents and high school youth was related to demanding expectations (authoritarian) or not high enough expectations (permissive). High expectations from parents are generally associated with higher levels of educational attainment. Effective parenting practices associated with high levels of academic achievement include expectations that children earn high numerical grades on school work (Phillips,1998). In addition, high achieving students more often than underachieving students described their parents as understanding, approving, trusting, affectionate, encouraging and not overly strict in disciplining (Masselam, Marcus and Stunkard,1996). Conversely, underachievers described their parents as very strict, demanding, lax and punitive in their disciplinary techniques (Ritter and Chen, 1996). Finally, Lambern et. Al (1997) found that adolescents from authoritative home environments demonstrated greater levels of academic competence and adjustment than adolescents reared by authoritarian parents. Thus, adolescents reared in authoritarian or permissive home environment appear to be at greater risk for academic outcomes. Studies have also examined how other variables such as parental education, per capita income level, gender and ethnicity correlate with student achievement. Results showed that parental education was most strongly correlated with academic achievement (Phillips, 1998). More specifically, the higher the parents’ education, the higher the child’s grades were. Melby and Conger (1998) also found that per- capita income had a positive correlation with student achievement. The United States Department of Education (2000) found in s study that the relationship between poverty and students’ performance is not simple and direct. It concluded that poverty is an important factor accounting for differences in performance and achievement across rural and urban districts. However, the study concluded that poverty alone does not account for all the differences in the performance of the students. Johnson (1996) opined that poverty of parents has elastic effects on their children academic works as they lack enough resources and funds to sponsor their education and good school, good housing facilities, medical care and social welfare services. Mba (1997), lamented that poverty has further caused other problems such as diseases, frustration, poor performance and psychological problems. Finally, neither gender nor ethnicity nor ethnicity was found to be significantly correlated with achievement in school. This is because parenting styles and their effects do not discriminate between males, females or various race.


Research Design Descriptive method of research will be applied in this study. As the term implies, it proceeds to describe certain phenomena. For this reason, some authorities in research describe it to be “fact finding” or “information gathering” with analytical interpretations
( Best, 1989). The use of descriptive research method will involve hypothesis formation and testing.
Sampling Design and Unit of Analysis The respondents of the study will be third and fourth year high school students enrolled in Core Gateway College. It will be composed of 58 students. 31 students will come from the third year level and 27 will come from the fourth year level. The samples will be selected randomly from the different sections of the two high school levels through draw lots. Third and fourth year students will be selected samples because it is the crucial stage in the adolescent period.
Locale of the Study The researcher prefers to gather data from the students of Core Gateway College because students from this group came from families of upper, middle and lower class rather than securing data from other schools in San Jose City where students come mostly from middle and lower class families.

Population and samples of the Study Students | Student Population(N) | Samples (30%)(n) | Third year | 102 | 31 | Fourth year | 88 | 27 | Total | 190 | 58 |

Data Collection Techniques and Instruments

Questionnaire will be designed to obtain the data needed in this study. Questionnaire regarding the students’ relationship with their parents comprises of two sets. Set A will comprise of questions about the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents and questions about the father-child relationship. Set B will comprise questions about the mother-child relationships. Regarding the grade point average of the students, the researcher will seek the permission of the high school principal/ records officer.
Validation and Administration of the Instrument After securing permission from the high school principal, the researcher would personally aid the selected respondents in answering the checklists at the library. Checklists will be distributed in two sets. Set A for the father-child relationship and set B for the mother-child relationship. The researcher will explain the instructions before the respondents will answer. Clarifications will be made whenever there will be questions not understood by the respondents. After collecting the checklists, the researcher will now get the grade point average of the respondents from the records officer. The instrument will be pre-tested in Nueva Ecija High School, Cabanatuan City to ensure the validity of the questions and answers.
Data Analysis The statistical tools to be used in the data analysis of the study in each problem are the following: For problems 1, 2 and 4, descriptive analysis such as frequency distribution, percentage distribution and means For problem 3, T-test For problems 5 and 6, Pearson Product Moment Correlation, Point Biserial and Spearman Rho

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