In what ways and what extent did Luther and Calvin's versions of Protestantism differ? Which version might have seemed more threatening to secular rulers.
Before the thought of Protestantism emerged, the church had already became militarize and politicized. For one thing, church owned the monopoly of God as a result of the issue that average people cannot understand bible in Latin. Secondly, as a byproduct of Crusades in 12th/ 13th centuries, the practice of selling "Indulgences" has expanded significantly throughout Europe. Martin Luther opposed the the statement from Roman Catholic church about salvation by stressing that salvation is independent of merit and worthiness, arguing that it is a gift of god who is not buyable. Luther believed that the only way to respond to God’s saving initiative is through trust in Him (faith). Accordingly, Indulgence and justification only come through faith.
John Calvin, a French theologian and pastor, strongly emphasized the importance of a well disciplined society, a well disciplined family, a well disciplined individual, which, in his point of view, might be the evidence of God's election. In general Calvin had accepted Luther's idea that salvation is by grace alone through faith. However, Calvin argued the extended idea of predestination. Calvin presents the doctrine of predestination. "Salvation is totally dependent upon God's initiative. Through Christ God chooses some for salvation. This relation to Christ which brings salvation is determined by God, not the sinner. God's will is eternal and unchanging and thus the willing of salvation is eternal and unchanging. Some are predestined, then, to be elected to salvation for the glory of God." (Institutes of the Christian Religion, book 3, Chapter2—John Calvin)
As a consequence, one of the most significant differences betweens Luther's and Calvin's version is Calvin's idea of predestination that...
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