This paper is submitted to fulfill the assignment of English Morphology Guided by Hendrikus S.pd
ENGLISH EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM S-1
COLLEGE O TEFACHER’S TRAINING AND EDUCATION
STIKP PAMANE TALINO
This paper explains of morphemes in studying English. In studying English, we must learn the grammatical structure of that language. The grammatical structure of English is very different from the grammatical structure of our language. In addition, the morphological process in English is also very important how to know well about morphemes. The people who are learning English need to know the English grammar and the English morphological process clearly.
Language consists of two aspects namely form and meaning. In relation to meaning, the smallest meaningful unit in language is morpheme. Morpheme is defined as the smallest meaningful unit of a language (Lim Kiat Boey, 1975 : 37). Words are made up of morphemes. The word teachers, for example, consists of three meaningful units or morphemes, teach, –er, and –s. The morpheme teach forming the word teachers has the lexical meaning; the morpheme –er means the doer of teaching; the morpheme –s has plural meaning. We can identify the meaning of the morpheme teach although it stands alone but we cannot identify the meaning of morphemes –er and –s in isolation. We can identify the meaning of the morpheme –er and –s after they combine to the morpheme teach. The morphemes such as teach, book, go, and good which can meaningfully stand alone are called free morphemes while the morphemes such as –er and –s, which cannot meaningfully stand alone are called bound morphemes. Bound morphemes must be attached to free morphemes. Bound morphemes are also called affixes which can be classified into prefix, infix, and suffix. English only has two kinds of bound morphemes namely prefixes and suffixes. There are not infixes in English. Bound morphemes are classified into two namely derivational and inflectional morphemes. A morpheme is the smallest linguistic unit that can have meaning assigned to it. A free morpheme is a small linguistic unit with meaning assigned to it (i.e. a morpheme) that can exist on its own e.g. time, llama, bed. A bound morpheme is a small linguistic unit with meaning assigned to it (i.e. a morpheme) that cannot exist on its own e.g. -ed, -s, -ing, -er, -en. An inflectional morpheme is a morpheme that is used to inflect a word. e.g. white can be inflected with the morphemes -r (whiter) and -est (whitest). A derivational morpheme is a morpheme that is used to create derivations of words. e.g. white can form the derivation whiten by adding the -n morpheme. (An inflection is when a word changes but is still the same type of word - white, whiter and whitest are all adjectives - and a derivation is when the word becomes a different type of word - white is an adjective and whiten is a verb.)
1. Definiton of Bound Morphemes
In morphology, a bound morpheme is a morpheme that only appears as part of a larger word; a free or unbound morpheme is one that can stand alone. A bound morpheme is also known as a bound form, and similarly a free morpheme is a free form. Affixes are always bound in English, although languages such as Arabic have forms which sometimes affix to words and sometimes can stand alone. English language affixes are almost exclusively prefixes or suffixes. E.g., pre- in "prefix" and -ment in "shipment". Affixes may be inflectional, indicating how a certain word relates to other words in a larger phrase, or derivational, changing either the part of speech or the actual meaning of a word. Many roots are free morphemes, e.g., ship- in "shipment", while others are bound. Roots normally carry lexical meaning. Words like chairman that contain two free morphemes (chair and man) are referred to...
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