Pakistan literature is a distinct literature that gradually came to be defined after Pakistan gained nationhood status in 1947, emerging out of literary traditions of the South Asia. The shared tradition of Urdu literature and English literature of British India was inherited by the new state. Over a period a body of literature unique to Pakistan has emerged in nearly all major Pakistani languages, including Urdu, English,Punjabi, Seraiki, Balochi, Pushto and Sindhi.
The nature of Pakistani literature soon after independence aroused controversy among writers due to its being centered heavily on the negative events related to the independence. According to Gilani Kamran (GC University), Pakistani literature was expected to take a new direction along with the new state of Pakistan at this point, but did not immediately meet this expectation. Saadat Hassan Manto (1912–1955), a prominent writer of short stories of the South Asia, produced great literature out of the events relating to the India-Pakistan independence. His literature is considered to be progressive in its tone and spirit. According to several critics it had not only evolved its own identity, but also had played a significant role in documenting the hardships and hopes of Pakistan in the latter part of the 20th century. Today, Pakistani literature has taken a shape of its own by depicting the complex class system and common man. Contemporary authors such as. It also has evolved in merging Urdu literary forms and English literature leading to experimentation. Many writers of fiction borrow from English and vice versa. Pakistani literature's main official platform is the Pakistan Academy of Letters, whose work is overseen by a Board of Governors. Literature by language
Urdu literature (Urdu: ادبیات اردو, “Adbiyāt-i Urdū”) has a history that is inextricably tied to the development of the Urdu language. While it tends to be dominated by poetry, especially the verse forms of the ghazal and nazm, it has expanded into other styles of writing, including that of the short story, or afsana. Urdu literature is mostly popular in Pakistan, where Urdu is the official language. It is also popular in India and is widely understood in Afghanistan.
Punjabi literature refers to literary works written in the Punjabi language particularly by peoples from the historical Punjab region of India and Pakistan including the Punjabi diaspora. The Punjabi language is written in several different scripts, of which the Shahmukhi, the Gurmukhī scripts are the most commonly used.
Pashto literature and poetry
Pashto literature and poetry (Pashto: پښتو ليكنې) refers to literature and poetry in Pashto language.
Sindhi literature (Sindhi: سنڌي ادب) writers have contributed extensively in various forms of literature both in poetry and prose. The earliest reference to Sindhi literature is contained in the writings of Arab historians. It is established that Sindhi was the first and the earliest language of East in which the Quran was translated in the eighth or ninth century A.D. There is evidence of Sindhi poets reciting their verses before the Muslim Caliphs in Baghdad. It is also recorded that treatises were written in Sindhi on astronomy, medicine and history during the eighth and ninth centuries. Shortly afterwards, Pir Nooruddin, an Ismaili Missionary, wrote Sufis tic poetry in Sindhi language. His verses, known as "ginans", can be taken as the specimen of early Sindhi poetry. He came to Sindh during the year 1079 AD. His poetry is an interesting record of the language which was spoken commonly at that time. He was a Sufi and a preacher of Islam. His verses are, therefore, full of mysticism and religion.
Saraiki literature is the literature of the Saraiki dialect of Western Punjabi Language, which is mostly spoken in central Pakistan. The main...
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