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Pakistan Studies Marking Scheme 2015

By zulhassan Feb 18, 2015 2597 Words
Cambridge International Examinations
Cambridge Ordinary Level

2059/01

PAKISTAN STUDIES
Paper 1 History and Culture of Pakistan

For Examination from 2015

SPECIMEN MARK SCHEME
1 hour 30 minutes

MAXIMUM MARK: 75

This document consists of 11 printed pages and 1 blank page. DC (NH) 75187/1
© UCLES 2013

[Turn over

2
SECTION A

1

(a) According to Source A, what problems faced Pakistan in 1947?

[3]

Reward each correct statement with 1 mark.
Population who have low morale, are disheartened and disorganised, government will need to work hard to motivate the people and have to become more responsible.

(b) What does Source B tell us about Muslim refugees in 1947? Level

Description

Marks

Level 3

Supported inferences, e.g.

[4–5]

Lots of people are moving because the train is crowded and people are sitting on the roof. It looks dangerous because the refugees are clinging to the sides of the train and they may fall off when the train moves. Many refugees lost their lives while travelling by train from India to Pakistan in 1947 when partition was announced.

Level 2

Unsupported inferences, e.g.

[2–3]

Lots of people are moving, families are leaving. It looks dangerous. Level 1

Identify surface features from the source, e.g.

[1]

I can see people on a train.
Level 0

No valid response.

[0]

(c) Why did Pakistan join the United Nations in 1947?
Level

Description

Marks

Level 3

Explains reasons, e.g.

[5–7]

Pakistan felt that membership of the United Nations would help their conflict with India over Kashmir by drawing the international community’s attention to it. Also Pakistan took it upon itself to become a spokesman of many Asian states and movements,

especially Muslim countries. Other issues included the World Bank and the Canal Water Dispute.
Level 2

[2–4]

Identifies reasons, e.g.
Because of the Canal Water Dispute.

Level 1

Simplistic answer, e.g.

[1]

The United Nations was founded after World War II.
Level 0

© UCLES 2013

No valid response.

[0]

2059/01/SM/15

3
(d) How successful was Quaid-e-Azam in establishing the new Pakistan in 1947? Explain your answer.
Level

Description

Marks

Level 5

Explains successes and failures, and also produces a judgement or evaluation.

[10]

Level 4

Explains successes and failures.

[8–9]

Successes:
Quaid-e-Azam Relief Fund created to help refugees. He appealed to the people to help the refugees.
He toured the provinces encouraging and motivating the people. Declared himself ‘Protector-General’ of religious minorities. State Bank of Pakistan set up.
Karachi made capital of Pakistan.
Civil Services re-organised.
Joined United Nations and attempted to draw their attention to Kashmir problem.
Failures:
Kashmir and other Princely States issues not resolved.
Canal Water Dispute not resolved until 1959.
Millions made homeless or died as a result of partition.
He died in 1948.
Level 3

Explains successes OR explains failures.

[5–7]

Level 2

Identifies/describes his policies, e.g.

[3–4]

He set up accommodation centres for refugees.
Level 1

Simplistic statement, e.g.

[1–2]

He was very successful and they missed him badly when he died. Level 0

© UCLES 2013

No valid response.

[0]

2059/01/SM/15

[Turn over

4
SECTION B

2

(a) Describe the battle of Plassey.

[4]

Reward each correct statement with 1 mark; 2 marks can be awarded for a developed statement. Candidates might refer to:
1757, French encouraged Siraj-ud-Daulah to attack EIC base at Calcutta. Captured city but couldn’t keep hold of it, Clive arrived with EIC soldiers and bribed Jafar, one of Siraj’s key men. Made him Nawab of Bengal as a reward for turning against Siraj who was defeated by Clive. Body found in a river after battle. As a result of battle, EIC controlled trade in Bengal, Clive made Governor of Bengal.

(b) Explain why the Mughal Empire declined following the reign of Aurangzeb. Level

Description

Marks

Level 3

Explains reasons, e.g.

[5–7]

Aurangzeb’s successors became lazy, weak and corrupt and left the administration to their ministers who often put their own interests first. There was no law of succession. Instead there was usually a struggle for succession which ended in war. Succession often depended upon the ability of the candidates and the support they could get. Fighting wars became expensive and the military was stretched and suffered much inefficiency. The successors failed to run the Empire effectively becoming very extravagant and so suffered from financial inefficiencies. The vastness of the Empire made it hard to defend and as such suffered several invasions. Eventually the British overran the Empire and were superior in such areas as military might.

Level 2

Identifies reasons, e.g.

[2–4]

Aurangzeb’s successors were weak. There was no law of
succession.
Level 1

Simplistic statement, e.g.

[1]

It was Aurangzeb’s successors that were to blame.
Level 0

© UCLES 2013

No valid response.

[0]

2059/01/SM/15

5
(c) Was the greased cartridge incident the most important cause of the War of Independence of 1857? Give reasons for your answer.
Level

Description

Marks

Level 5

Explains more than one reason and also produces a judgement or evaluation.

Level 4

Explains more than one reason, e.g.

[14]
[10–13]

A new cartridge was introduced by the British which was coated in both cow and pig fat. Because the soldiers had to chew the fat it caused great resentment since pig fat was forbidden by the Muslims and the cow was a sacred animal in the eyes of

the Hindus. However there were other reasons for the War. The replacement of Persian and Sanskrit by English as the official language in 1832 deeply upset both the Muslims and Hindus. In 1852 the ‘Doctrine of Lapse’ was introduced and caused great unrest because any local kingdom not having a direct male heir was taken over by the British. A number of social reforms had been imposed without consultation or care for local feeling which also caused unrest. Indians had to send their children to co-educational schools and were forced to abandon purdha.

Level 3

Explains one reason OR gives more than one reason with only
simple explanation.

[7–9]

Level 2

Description/identification of reasons, e.g.

[3–6]

A new cartridge was introduced by the British which was coated in both cow and pig fat. The cartridge had to be unfolded by chewing with teeth before using them in the guns.
Level 1

Simplistic statement, e.g.

[1–2]

It was the most important reason.
Level 0

© UCLES 2013

No valid response.

[0]

2059/01/SM/15

[Turn over

6
3

(a) What was the Lucknow Pact?

[4]

Reward each correct statement with 1 mark; 2 marks can be awarded for a developed statement. Candidates might refer to:
(Dec) 1916, Congress agreed to concessions with Muslim League – right to separate electorates, one third of seats in Councils. Both wanted more seats in Councils, protection of Minorities, provinces to have autonomy, proposals to be binding on British. First time joint agreement, Congress accepted some form of partition needed, Home Rule seemed a possibility and Muslim League realised they needed to work with Congress.

(b) Why was the Muslim League established in 1906?
Level

Description

Marks

Level 3

Explains reasons, e.g.

[5–7]

Muslim rights would not be advanced if they continued to rely on the Indian National Congress. It was seen as an organisation which would only advance Hindu views. The Congress was demanding
that India should be treated as a cultural whole and Hindi should be declared the official language. By not organising a Muslim group they would continue to be disorganised and disunited. Even more worrying was the growth of extreme Hindu nationalist groups who demanded that Muslims be forcibly converted to Hinduism. Therefore a number of prominent Muslim leaders founded the

Muslim League.
Level 2

Identifies reasons, e.g.

[2–4]

The Muslims were not united. The Hindus had their own party. Level 1

Simplistic statement, e.g.

[1]

They wanted their own political party.
Level 0

© UCLES 2013

No valid response.

[0]

2059/01/SM/15

7
(c) ‘The Khilafat Movement failed by 1924 because Gandhi withdrew his support.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer.
Level

Description

Marks

Level 5

Explains at least two factors and also produces a judgement or evaluation.

Level 4

Explains at least two factors, e.g.

[14]
[10–13]

Gandhi had seen an opportunity for self rule by joining the
Movement, and the involvement of the Hindus was welcomed by
many Muslims. However, by joining with the Hindus the objectives of the Movement were made less clear since the Hindus and
Ghandi especially, were using it for their own ends and didn’t have the interests of the Muslims at heart. Chauri Chaura was a village in the United Province where trouble started between the police and a mob. Gandhi decided that the Swaraj Movement was becoming

too violent following the Chauri Chaura incident and so called off his support.
However, there were other reasons for its failure. Some of the leaders including Maulana Muhammad Ali were imprisoned in 1921 which made the organisation less effective. Thousands of Muslims migrated to Afghanistan in a religious protest against the British government. The Afghan government was hostile to the migrants and refused to allow all the refugees to settle. Many of those who returned to India died on the journey back or found themselves homeless and jobs occupied which dispirited the Muslims. Thus Muslim support for the Khilafat Movement fell away. Its failure was also brought about by the decision of the Muslim Mustafa Kamal Ataturk to form a nationalist government in Turkey but the end had been seen in the refusal of Lloyd George to accept the demands of the Movement.

Level 3

Explains one factor OR gives more than one reason with only
simple explanation.

[7–9]

Level 2

Identifies/describes the reasons for failure, e.g.

[3–6]

Gandhi thought that events were getting too violent.
Level 1

Simplistic statement, e.g.

[1–2]

It led to the failure of the Movement.
Level 0

© UCLES 2013

No valid response.

[0]

2059/01/SM/15

[Turn over

8
4

(a) Who was Chaudri Rahmat Ali?

[4]

Reward each correct statement with 1 mark; 2 marks can be awarded for a developed statement. Candidates might refer to:
1930 left India to study law at Cambridge, attended conferences in London on Hindu-Muslim relationships. Believed in a separate Muslim homeland – partition. 1933 a pamphlet ‘Now or Never’ – argued in favour of partition, gave the name Pakistan. Became popular amongst most Muslims during the 1930s. Considered less important than Allama Iqbal, Jinnah refused to meet him.

(b) Why did the Cripps Mission of 1942 fail?
Level

Description

Marks

Level 3

Explains reasons, e.g.

[5–7]

The Muslims rejected the plan because the British would not
agree to Partition and the Congress Party wanted immediate and full control over the central government. The British were also negotiating from a weak position which the Congress Party exploited by demanding Britain leave the sub-continent immediately.

Level 2

Identifies reasons, e.g.

[2–4]

The Muslims and Hindus opposed it.
Level 1

Simplistic statement, e.g.

[1]

The Cripps Mission had no success/Describes the Mission.
Level 0

© UCLES 2013

No valid response.

[0]

2059/01/SM/15

9
(c) ‘The main reason why Congress rule (1937–1939) was so hated was because of the introduction of the Wardha Scheme.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer. Level

Description

Marks

Level 5

Explains at least two factors and also produces a judgement or evaluation.

Level 4

Explains at least two factors, e.g.

[14]

[10–13]

The Wardha Scheme was imposed on Muslims. Under this scheme, students had to bow before Gandhi’s picture each day. Muslims saw this as an attempt to convert them to Hinduism. However there were other reasons why Congress Rule was hated. This was due to the atrocities committed against the Muslims. They were abused and killed by Hindus. Hindi was enforced as the official language and organised attacks were made on Muslim worshippers in mosques. Bande Matram, a song in which degrading remarks were used

against Muslims, was adopted as the national anthem and had to be sung at the beginning of each day.
Level 3

Explains one factor OR gives two reasons with only simple
explanation.

[7–9]

Level 2

Identifies the reasons, e.g.

[3–6]

The Muslims had to observe the Wardha Scheme and sing Bande
Matram.
Level 1

Simplistic statement, e.g.

[1–2]

The Hindus were cruel.
Level 0

© UCLES 2013

No valid response.

[0]

2059/01/SM/15

[Turn over

10
5

(a) What problems did Benazir Bhutto face as Prime Minister of Pakistan?

[4]

Reward each correct statement with 1 mark; 2 marks can be awarded for a developed statement. Candidates might refer to:
1988–90, 1993–96. Faced opposition from politicians who wanted her to fail, husband Zardari accused of corruption, divisions within her party (PPP), IJI criticised government of being close to USA. Confrontations with provincial governments, violent protests, coalition party MQM joined with IJI, Pucca Qila massacre.

(b) Why was India successful in the 1965 and 1971 wars against Pakistan? Level

Description

Marks

Level 3

Explains reasons, e.g.

[5–7]

In 1965 the Pakistan army had never expected a full scale war with India over Kashmir. Their plans to encourage an uprising in Indian occupied Kashmir did not work. Indian troops attacked and Lahore was caught unprepared. By 1971, the Indians had developed a

much bigger army and used the civil war in East Pakistan to fight Pakistan. The speed and ease of the Indian victory confirmed the Indian army’s superiority.
Level 2

[2–4]

Identifies reasons, e.g.
The Indian army was bigger and Pakistan was unprepared.

Level 1

Simplistic answer, e.g.

[1]

Pakistan felt betrayed.
Level 0

© UCLES 2013

No valid response.

[0]

2059/01/SM/15

11
(c) ‘Constitutional reforms were the most important of Ayub Khan’s domestic policies during the “Decade of Progress” between 1958 and 1969.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer.
Level

Description

Marks

Level 5

Explains at least two factors/policies and also produces a judgement or evaluation.

Level 4

Explains at least two factors/policies, e.g.

[14]
[10–13]

In 1959 Basic Democracies were introduced which was a 4 tier structure of government, allowing elections at various levels. The success of these councils which were set up was such that martial law was lifted. However there were other factors which were

important aspects of his domestic policies. Land was redistributed to farmers with medium-sized farms and agriculture was revitalised to such an extent that crop outputs were at record levels. In 1962 an oil refinery was established in Karachi and a Mineral Development Corporation was set up for the exploration of mineral deposits. An Export Bonus Scheme was set up offering incentives to industrialists who increased exports. As a result of these policies economic growth rose sharply. National growth rate rose more than 7% and the economy grew three times faster than any other South East Asian country. However the new wealth was concentrated in the hands of a few and the general population didn’t benefit. Level 3

Explains one factor/policy OR gives more than one factor/policy with only simple explanation.

[7–9]

Level 2

Identifies/describes the policies, e.g.

[3–6]

He introduced Basic Democracies and redistributed land.
Level 1

Simplistic statement, e.g.

[1–2]

Constitutional reforms were important to the government of
Pakistan.
Level 0

© UCLES 2013

No valid response.

[0]

2059/01/SM/15

12
BLANK PAGE

© UCLES 2013

2059/01/SM/15

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