Pak Us Relations

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Lecture No. 1 25-10-210

KASHMIR ISSUE
OUTLINE:

1. Background
2. Indian Perspective
3. Pakistan Perspective
4. Plebiscite
5. Partition
6. Independent and conclusion

EARLY HISTORY:
In the 18th century Kashmir was ruled by the Muslim Pashtun Durrani Empire. In 1819 Kashmir was conquered by the Sikh ruler Ranjit Singh. Following the First Anglo-Sikh War in 1845 and 1846, Kashmir was first ceded by the Treaty of Lahore to the East India Company, and shortly after sold by the Treaty of Amritsar to Gulab Singh, Raja of Jammu, who thereafter was given the title Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir. From then until the Partition of India, Kashmir was ruled by the Hindu Maharajas of the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu although the majority of the population were Muslim, except in the Jammu region.

1) BACKGROUND:
In 1947, British rule in India ended with the creation of two new nations: the Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan while British suzerainty over the 562 Indian princely states ended. In 1843 the Britain sold Kashmir to Ghulam Singh in 7.5 million rupees.
According to the Indian Independence Act 1947, the states were left to choose whether to join India or Pakistan or to remain independent. Jammu and Kashmir, the largest of the princely states, had a predominantly Muslim population while having a Hindu ruler (Maharaja Hari Singh.) On partition Pakistan expected Kashmir to be annexed to it.
In October 1947, Muslim revolutionaries in western Kashmir and Pakistani tribals from Dir entered Kashmir intending to liberate it from Dogra rule. Freedom fighters marched toward Sarinagar and occupied 6 miles territory. Unable to withstand the invasion, the Maharaja signed the Instrument of Accession that was accepted by the government of India on 27 October 1947.
As the result of 1965 war the valley of Jammu and Kashmir has been divided in fourth parts:
i) Ladakh and Jammu and Kashmir: This is Indian occupied territory. ii) Azad Jammu and

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