Lecture No. 1
Independent and conclusion
In the 18th century Kashmir was ruled by the Muslim Pashtun Durrani Empire. In 1819 Kashmir was conquered by the Sikh ruler Ranjit Singh. Following the First Anglo-Sikh War in 1845 and 1846, Kashmir was first ceded by the Treaty of Lahore to the East India Company, and shortly after sold by the Treaty of Amritsar to Gulab Singh, Raja of Jammu, who thereafter was given the title Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir. From then until the Partition of India, Kashmir was ruled by the Hindu Maharajas of the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu although the majority of the population were Muslim, except in the Jammu region.
In 1947, British rule in India ended with the creation of two new nations: the Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan while British suzerainty over the 562 Indian princely states ended. In 1843 the Britain sold Kashmir to Ghulam Singh in 7.5 million rupees. According to the Indian Independence Act 1947, the states were left to choose whether to join India or Pakistan or to remain independent. Jammu and Kashmir, the largest of the princely states, had a predominantly Muslim population while having a Hindu ruler (Maharaja Hari Singh.) On partition Pakistan expected Kashmir to be annexed to it. In October 1947, Muslim revolutionaries in western Kashmir and Pakistani tribals from Dir entered Kashmir intending to liberate it from Dogra rule. Freedom fighters marched toward Sarinagar and occupied 6 miles territory. Unable to withstand the invasion, the Maharaja signed the Instrument of Accession that was accepted by the government of India on 27 October 1947. As the result of 1965 war the valley of Jammu and Kashmir has been divided in fourth parts: i)
Ladakh and Jammu and Kashmir:
This is Indian occupied territory.
Azad Jammu and Kahsmir:
This is under in Pakistani administration
Qarakaram, Gilgit, Biltistan
They are separated and have their own administration by their self. iv)
This is under the control of China. China occupied on this territory on war of 1962.
Indian viewpoint is succinctly summarized by Ministry of External affairs, Government of India: • India holds that the Instrument of Accession of the State of Jammu and Kashmir to the Union of India, signed by Maharaja Hari Singh on 26 October 1947, was completely valid in terms of the Government of India Act (1935), Indian Independence Act (1947) and international law and was total and irrevocable. • United Nations Security Council Resolution 1172 tacitly accepts India's stand regarding all outstanding issues between India and Pakistan and urges the need to resolve the dispute through mutual dialogue and does not call for a plebiscite. • United Nations Security Council Resolution 47 cannot be implemented since Pakistan failed to withdraw its forces from Kashmir which was the first step in implementing the resolution. • India does not accept the two-nation theory that forms the basis of Pakistan and argues that Kashmir, despite being a Muslim-majority state, is in many ways an "integral part" of secular India. • The state of Jammu and Kashmir was provided significant autonomy in the Article 370 of the Constitution of India. • All differences between India and Pakistan including Kashmir need to be settled through bilateral negotiations as agreed to by the two countries when they signed the Simla Agreement on 2 July 1972. • Insurgency and terrorism in Kashmir is deliberately being fueled by Pakistan to create instability in the region. The Government of India has repeatedly accused Pakistan of waging a proxy war in Kashmir by providing weapons and financial assistance to terrorist groups in the region..
Indian policy toward Kashmir they operate their...
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