P1 P2 P3 M1 M2 D1

Topics: Sigmund Freud, Unconscious mind, Psychosexual development Pages: 21 (13374 words) Published: May 15, 2015

BTEC Level 3 Extended Diploma in Health and Social Care  
Unit 8 Psychological perspectives for health and social care (5 credits)    Taiyyabah Ijaz 
P1, P2, P3, M1 
 
Here I will explain the principal psychological perspectives, explain different psychological approaches to health practice, explain different psychological approaches to social care practice and assess different psychological approaches to study. P1 

Psychodynamic theory
 Freud believed that the human mind was composed of three elements the id the superego and ego the Id and the Superego are the devil and the angel on both shoulders the Id is the devil saying I want, I want, I want and the Super ego as the angel making you think of the consequences and the Ego evens both out not letting the Id be too harsh and the Superego not to evil. The Conscious, the Preconscious, and the Unconscious- The conscious holds the information that a person is paying attention to, the preconscious contains the information outside of a person’s attention but is available if needed, the unconscious keeps thoughts, feelings, desires, and memories that people have no awareness but influence every aspect of their day-to-day lives Psychologists assume that our behaviour is determined by unconscious forces of which we are unaware. Each surface thought or behaviour hides a hidden motive or intention. The latent motives for our behaviour reflect our instinctive biological drives and our early experiences, particularly before the age of five. Most particularly, it is the way we are treated by our parent’s children that shapes our adult behaviour.   Defence mechanisms- are behaviours that protect people from anxiety. There are many different kinds of defines mechanisms, many that are automatic and unconscious. Repression- is an unconscious mechanisms employed by the ego to keep distributing or threatening thoughts from becoming conscious. Denial- involves blocking external events from awareness. If some situation is just too much to handle, then person just refuses to experience. Projection- this involves individuals attributing their own unacceptable thoughts, feeling and motives to another person. Displacement- satisfying an impulse (e.g. aggression) with a substitute object. Regression- this is a movement back in psychological time when one is faced with stress .Sublimation- satisfying an impulse (e.g. aggression) with a sustainable object. In a socially acceptable way.                                                                                                                                           Psychosexual stages.    

Oral stage 1-3- (this is where the ego develops) the infant's primary source of interaction occurs through the mouth, so the rooting and sucking reflex is especially important. If fixation occurs at this stage, Freud believed the individual would have issues with dependency or aggression. Oral fixation can result in problems with drinking, eating, smoking, or nail biting.   Anal stage 1-3-

Freud believed that the primary focus of the libido was on controlling bladder and bowel movements.  Parents who utilize praise and rewards for using the toilet at the appropriate time they’ll become competent, productive and creative adults.  According to Freud, inappropriate parental responses can result in negative outcomes in which the individual has a messy, wasteful or a destructive personality. If parents are too strict or begin toilet training too early, the individual is stringent, orderly, rigid and obsessive.    Phallic Stage 3-6 years- Sensitivity becomes concentrated in the genitals and masturbation (in both sexes) becomes a new interest and source of pleasure.  The child becomes aware of anatomical sex differences, which sets in motion the conflict between erotic attraction, resentment, rivalry, jealousy and fear which Freud called the Oedipus complex (in boys) and the Electra complex (in girls).  This is resolved through the process of...

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