P1: Explain all 6 psychology perspectives.
M1: Choose 2 perspectives and extend your explanations to access them. i.e. look at all the factors in detail and assess how useful they are to study human behaviour. In this essay I will be talking about the 6 perspectives which are; social learning theory, behaviourism theory, biological theory, psychodynamic theory, cognitive theory and humanism. I will be talking about the theorists involved with psychology and the tests they done to prove their theories. Psychology is the study of the human mind, its functions and behaviour. It tries to explain the way we act and the way we are. The behaviourism theory is primarily concerned with observable behaviour, as opposed to internal events like thinking and emotion. The social learning theory is where an individual is introduced to other individuals which may have different actions and behaviour which the individual may learn off. The biological theory is where theorists believe that emotions and actions are passed through genetics and they look at the way an individual’s parents and grandparents to see if the behaviour and actions are the same within the family or not. The psychodynamic theory is the human functioning based on the interaction of drives and forces within the individual. The cognitive theory is the concept that if we want to know what makes an individual react to an object we learn the internal process of their mind. The humanism psychology looks at human experience the viewpoint of the individual. The theorists that studied this theory are; B.F.Skinner, Ivan Pavlov and John.B.Watson, all of these theorists studied it in different ways. http://psychology.about.com/od/classicpsychologystudies/a/little-albert-experiment.htm The Behaviourist Theory.
The first theorist I am going to talk about is Ivan Pavlov. His experiment was based around the dog’s digestive system. He noticed that dogs salivate when dogs see food and that this reaction is ‘hard wired’ into the brain of a dog. While doing the original experiment he wondered if he could condition the dog to salivate when they hear the bell ring. The experiment Pavlov used a bell as his neutral stimulus. Whenever he gave food to his dogs, he also rang a bell. After a number of repeats of this procedure, he tried the bell on its own. the bell started to increase in salivation. The dog had learned an association between the bell and the food and a new behaviour had been learnt. This was called classical conditioning. Aldworth, C.Billingham, M.Lawrence, P.Moonie, and Whitehouse, M (2010) Health and social care level 3 book 1 BTEC National Harlow; Pearson Education Limited- pages 338-340 http://www.simplypsychology.org/pavlov.html The second theorist I am going to talk about is Skinner. Skinner ran an experiment on rats and pigeons, which went into a box with an electrical current going, threw it at the bottom and if the rats and pigeons completed what Skinner wanted them to do they got a treat or not electrocuted this was called the ‘Skinner box’. The first time the rat was put into the box it didn’t know what to do, after a while when the rat accidently pushed the leaver it realised that when it pushed the leaver it got some food. However on the other hand he ran another experiment and this time it was with a light and once the light had turned on and off an electrical current passed through the floor and electrocuted the rat this trained the rat to know that once the light had gone out the current was going to becoming after it. This is positive and negative reinforcement. This was called operant conditioning. Aldworth, C.Billingham, M.Lawrence, P.Moonie, and Whitehouse, M (2010) Health and social care level 3 book 1 BTEC National Harlow; Pearson Education Limited- pages 338-340 The last theorist I am going to talk about is John.B.Watson. Watson developed Pavlov’s experiment with dogs and he wanted to see if he could do it with humans, he did his experiment on a baby...
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