ozone layer depletion

Topics: Atmosphere, Ozone depletion, Greenhouse gas Pages: 54 (8948 words) Published: January 17, 2014
Environment
Canada

Environnement
Canada

Ozone
Depletion
and
Climate
Change:
Understanding the Linkages
Angus Fergusson
Meteorological Service of Canada

Published by authority of the Minister of the Environment
Copyright © Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, 2001 Catalogue No. EN56-168/2001E
ISBN: 0-662-30692-9
Également disponible en français
Author: Angus Fergusson (Environment Canada)
Editing: David Francis ( Lanark House Communications)
David Wardle / Jim Kerr (Environment Canada)
Contributing Authors: Bruce McArthur (Environment Canada): Bratt Lake Observatory David Tarasick (Environment Canada): Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model Tom McElroy (Environment Canada): MANTRA Project

Special thanks for comments to: Vitali Fioletov (Environment Canada) Hans Fast (Environment Canada)
Pictures: Angus Fergusson (Environment Canada)
John Bird (Environment Canada)

Brent Colpitts
Ray Jackson
Layout and Design: BTT Communications

Additional copies may be obtained, free of charge, from:
Angus Fergusson
Science Assessment and Integration Branch
Meteorological Service of Canada
4905 Dufferin Street
Downsview, Ontario
M3H 5T4
E-mail: Angus.Fergusson@ec.gc.ca

Table of Contents

Summary

2

Introduction

4

The Atmosphere and its Radiative Effects

6

The Dynamics of the Atmosphere

10

The Chemistry of the Atmosphere

12

Biogeochemical Linkages:
The Impact of Increased UV Radiation

14

Canadian Research and Monitoring

16

Implications for Policy

20

The Research Agenda

22

Making Connections

26

Bibliography

28

Figure 1. Compared to the earth itself, the earth’s
atmosphere as seen from space looks remarkably thin,
much like the skin on an apple. In this photograph, the
two lowest layers of the atmosphere, the troposphere and
the stratosphere, are clearly visible. The stratosphere is
home to the ozone layer that protects life on earth from
intense ultraviolet radiation. The troposphere is the layer
where most weather activity takes place. The top of the
thundercloud has flattened out at the tropopause, the
boundary between the two layers. Interactions between
the troposphere and stratosphere provide a number of
important connections between ozone depletion and
climate change.

Figure 1

Source: NASA

1

Summary
O

zone depletion and climate
change have usually been
thought of as environmental
issues with little in common
other than their global scope and
the major role played in each by
CFCs and other halocarbons.
With increased understanding of
these issues, however, has come a
growing recognition that a number of very important linkages exist between them. These linkages will have some bearing on how each of these problems
and the atmosphere as a whole
evolve in the future.
Some of the most important of
these linkages involve the way
that ozone-depleting substances
and greenhouse gases alter radiation processes in the atmosphere so as to enhance both global
warming and stratospheric ozone
depletion.These changes result
in a warming of the troposphere
(the bottom 8–16 km of the
atmosphere) and a cooling of the
stratosphere (the layer above that
extends to an altitude of about
50 km and contains the ozone
layer). Stratospheric cooling
creates a more favourable environment for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs),

which are a key factor in the
development of polar ozone
holes.
Enhancement of the greenhouse effect may also be causing
changes in circulation patterns in
the troposphere that are, in turn,
altering the circulation in the
stratosphere. It is suspected that
these changes are increasing the
cooling forces acting on the
stratosphere over the poles and
are thus making the formation of
ozone holes more likely.There is
evidence as well that changes in
the stratospheric circulation may
be altering weather patterns in
the troposphere....

Bibliography: Angell, J.K. 2000. Global, hemispheric, and zonal temperature deviations derived from radiosonde records.
Bernard, S.M., J. Samet,A. Grambsch, K. Ebi, and I. Romieu. 2001.The potential impacts of climate variability
and change on air pollution-related health effects in the United States
Butler, J.H. 2000. Better budgets for methyl halides. Nature, 403, 260-261.
Fioletov,V.E., B. McArthur, J. Kerr, and D.Wardle. 2000. Estimation of long-term changes in ultraviolet radiation
over Canada
Harvey, D. 2000. Global Warming: The Hard Science.Toronto: Prentice Hall.
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2001. Climate Change 2001, The Scientific Basis,
Summary for Policymakers and Technical Summary of the IPCC WGI Third Assessment Report.
Jacob, Daniel J. 1999. Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry. Princeton: Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Labitzke, K and B. Naujokat. 2000.The lower arctic stratosphere in winter since 1952. SPARC Newsletter,
No
McArthur, L.J.B.,V.E. Fioletov, J.B. Kerr, and D.I.Wardle. 1999. Derivation of UV-A irradiance from pyranometer
measurements, Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, 30139-30151.
Rhew, R.C., B. Miller, and R.F.Weiss. 2000. Natural methyl bromide and methyl chloride emissions from coastal
salt marshes
Rind, D., D. Shindell, P. Lonergan, N.K. Balachandran. 1998. Climate change and the middle atmosphere. Part
III:The doubled CO2 climate revisited
Rind, D., R. Suozzo, N.K. Balachandran, and M.J. Prather. 1990. Climate change and the middle atmosphere.
Shepherd,T.G. 2000. On the role of the stratosphere in the climate system. SPARC Newsletter, No 14, 7-10.
Staehelin, J., N.R.P. Harris, C.Appenzeller, and J. Eberhard. 2001. Ozone trends: A review. Review of Geophysics,
39 (2), 231-290.
Weaver,A. and F.W. Zwiers. 2000. Uncertainty in climate change. Nature, 407, 571-572.
World Meteorological Organization, 1999. Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998. Geneva:World
Meteorological Organization.
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