Overview of Psychology: Biological Bases of Behavior

Topics: Psychology, Carl Jung, Sigmund Freud Pages: 6 (1587 words) Published: October 11, 2014
Trident University International
PSY101 – Introduction to Psychology
Module 1- Case Assignment

Introduction
A discipline that seeks to analyze the mind, psychology studies why people behave, feel and think the way they do. Also while there are many ways to approach understanding the mind, some psychologists focus on how the human mind develops while others routinely counsel patients to help improve their lives. We will examine a few famous psychologists and the disciplines they developed. Alfred Adler

A founding figure of depth psychology, Alfred Adler believed that as humans, we all have one fundamental desire, to belong and feel significant. Alder was the cofounder of the Vienna Psychoanalytical Society along with Sigmund Freud but broke away and formed an independent school. He develops a theory of individual psychology that connected personality and psychotherapy. This concept of inferior complex that spoke of self-esteem and its negative effects on human health proved to be correct when applied to the growth and development of children. Moreover, in 1900’s, published several books, the most notable being “The Practice and Theory of Individual Psychology. According to Fisher (2001), wrote that Alder’s method included four aspects in individual psychology; the development of personality, striving towards superiority, psychological health and the unity of personality. (Theory, Alfred Adler, www.muskingum.edu) Sigmund Freud

One of the most famous thinkers in psychology history, Sigmund Freud played a major role in the development of psychology during the late 1800’s. The founding father of psychoanalysis, his work supported the belief that mental illness was not always from psychological causes. In 1895, he published one of his works “Studies in Hysteria” but it was not until the early 1900’s when his publications such as “The Interpretation of Dreams and “The Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality” became world famous. McLeod (2013), wrote Sigmund Freud’s words which he introduced through his theories are still being used today by everyday people. Some of these words include anal (personality), denial, repression, libido and neurotic. Carl Rogers

An influential American psychologist, Carl Rogers was among the first to develop a client-centered therapy as part of his approach to understanding the human personality. In the 1940’s, he served as President for the American Psychological Association and taught psychology at the University of Wisconsin from 1957 to 1963 where he wrote one of his best books ‘On Becoming a person.” McLeod (2007) wrote; a person who is actualizing is a fully functioning person. Rogers identified five characteristics of a fully function person; Open to experience, existential living, trust feelings, creativity and fulfilled life. (A fully functioning person, Carl Rogers, Humanism, Simply Psychology). One of the most important contributions to psychology, Carl Rogers believed that the one fundamental motive humans have is to self-actualize or fulfill one’s potential and achieve the highest level we can. Ivan Pavlov

The son of a priest, Ivan Pavlov left his studies in theology and began to study science. In the late 1800’s, he focused his research on the salivary activity of digestion in dogs that led him to formulate a concept which he called “conditioned reflex.” This groundbreaking work was published in 1903 and earned him a Nobel Prize in physiology in 1904. In an attempt to discover the correlation between psychic activity and conditioned reflex, Pavlov deduced three principles; the principle of determination, analysis and synthesis, and the principle of structure. (Nobel Lectures, Physiology or Medicine 1901-1921, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1967). Abraham Maslow

An American psychologist who created a hierarchy of needs stressed the importance of focusing on people’s positive qualities rather than their negative ones. In the 1920’s, he attended several colleges but...


References: Molly Fisher, Alfred Adler, Biography and Theory. 2001. Web. The Muskingum.edu website (n.d.). Retrieved from
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McLeod, S. A. Sigmund Freud, Psychodynamic. Web. Simply Psychology.com website. 2013. (n.d.).Retrieved from
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McLeod, S. A. Carl Rogers. Humanism. Web. Simply Psychology.com website. 2007. (n.d.). Retrieved from
http://www.simplypsychology.org/carl-rogers.html
McLeod, S. A. Maslow 's Hierarchy of Needs. Humanism. Web. Simply Psychology.com website. 2007. (n.d.). Retrieved from
http://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html
Jean Piaget. Psychological Studies. 2014. Web. The Biography.com website. (n.d.). Retrieved from
http://www.biography.com/people/jean-piaget-9439915
Erikson’s Legacy. 2014. Erikson Institute. Web. The Erikson.edu website. (n.d.). Retrieved from
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McLeod, S. A. B.F. Skinner. Behaviorism. Operant Conditioning. Web. Simply Psychology.com website. 2007. (n.d.). Retrieved from
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Kendra Cherry. 2014. Carl Jung Biography. Psychology. Web. The Psychology.about.com website. (n.d.). Retrieved from
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Wayne Pomerleau. 2014. Philosophical Psychology. William James Biography. Web. Internet Encyclopedia of Psychology. IEP. (n.d.). Retrieved from
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