Overcoming Barriers to Efficiency

Powerful Essays
© 2005, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). Reprinted by permission from ASHRAE Journal, (Vol. 47, No. 9, September 2005). This article may not be copied nor distributed in either paper or digital form without ASHRAE’s permission.

Overcoming Barriers to Efficiency
By Thomas M. Lawrence, Member ASHRAE, Jeffrey D. Mullen, Douglas S. Noonan, and Jay Enck, Member ASHRAE

C

ommercial and residential buildings consumed approximately 39% of the total energy used in the United States in 20021

with the remaining used in the industrial (33%) and transportation (28%) sectors. Approximately 4.6 million commercial buildings exist in the United States.2 Of these, 68% of the non-governmental buildings are owner-occupied, and the rest are leased or vacant. More than 90% of buildings owned by the U.S. federal government are owner-occupied.3
The majority of energy use is devoted to space conditioning, lighting and other equipment. Figure 1 shows energy consumption in commercial buildings.
Barriers to Installation of High-Performance HVAC Equipment

the viewpoint is different depending on whether the particular building is occupied by the owning entity or is leased. For owner-occupied buildings, the utility and capital expenses are ultimately included in one corporate budget. Thus, decision processes become a justification of any additional expense for higher performing equipment relative to the expected returns via lower energy costs. In an existing building, business management principles determine the evaluation process. The decision is influenced by whether modifications are necessary
About the Authors Thomas M. Lawrence is with the faculty of engineering and Jeffrey D. Mullen is an assistant professor in the Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Georgia, Athens, Ga. Douglas S. Noonan is an assistant professor in the School of Public Policy, Georiga Institute of Technology,



References: 1. U.S. Department of Energy. 2004 Buildings Energy Databook, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. 2. U.S. Energy Information Administration. 1999 “Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.” www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/ cbecs/set4.html. Page modified June 23, 2004. 3. U.S. General Services Administration. 2003. Overview of the United States Government’s Owned and Leased Real Property: Federal Real Property Profile as of September 30, 2003. 4. Wilson, A., et al. 1998. Green Development: Integrating Ecology and Real Estate. John Wiley & Sons. 5. United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 1992. “Climate Change: the 1990 and 1992 IPPC Assessments.” 6. Public Technology, Inc./U.S. Green Building Council. 1996. Sustainable Building Technical Manual. 7. Kumar, S. and W.J. Fisk. 2002. “IEQ and the impact on employee sick leave.” ASHRAE Journal 44(7):97 – 98. 8. Halme, M. and J. Niskanen. 2001. “Does corporate environmental protection increase or decrease shareholder value? The case of environmental investments.” Business Strategy and the Environment 10(4):200 – 214. 9. U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration. 2004. Analysis of Efficiency Standards for Air Conditioners, Heat Pumps, and Other Products. www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/servicerpt/eff/air cond.html. Page modified October 25, 2004. 10. California Energy Commission. 2001. Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards, Section 121—Requirements for Ventilation, California Code of Regulations Title 24, Part 6. 11. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, State Energy Management Programs. 2005. www.eere.energy.gov/femp/program/utility/ utilityman_energymanage.cfm. Accessed March 28, 2005. 12. U.S. Department of Energy. 10 CFR 436, Subpart A, Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses. 13. Mullen, M.E. 2005. “Moving beyond simple payback.” ASHRAE Journal 47(6):14 – 20. 14. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. 2004. School Operations and Maintenance: Best Practices for Controlling Energy Costs. www.ase.org/content/article/ detail/1806. Last accessed June 6, 2005. 15. Heath, G.A. and M.J. Mendell. 2002. “Do indoor environments in schools influence student performance? A review of the literature.” Proceedings: Indoor Air ‘02: 802 – 807. http://eetd.lbl.gov/ied/pdf/ LBNL-49567.pdf LBNL-49567.pdf. Last accessed June 6, 2005. 16. Lawrence, T.M. 2004. “Methodologies for evaluating demand controlled ventilation in HVAC retrofits.” Ph.D. Thesis, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana. September 2005 Advertisement formerly in this space. S46 Building for the Future | A Supplement to ASHRAE Journal

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