Top-Rated Free Essay

Outline the process of urbanisation and describe its effects.

Satisfactory Essays
Outline the process of urbanisation and describe its effects.

Urbanisation is the growth in the proportion of a country’s population the lives in urban as opposed to rural areas. Urbanisation first occurred in MEDCs during the industrial revolution that took place in Europe and North America in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Since 1950, urbanisation has been rapidly occurring in LEDCs and nowadays, the rate of urbanisation in LEDCs, for example, in South America, Africa and Asia, is greater than in MEDCs. As LEDCs are developing more people are migrating to urban areas. In Bangalore, India, for example, 58% of migrants to the city have migrated from other urban areas. The process of urbanisation is caused by natural change, in-migration and also reclassification.

The positive economic effects of urbanisation include the industries and finance that bring a lot of income into the city and the emerge of the informal employment sector which provides a scope for local entrepreneurial talent and offers a remedy for unemployment problems that comes with urbanisation. Also, small businesses and family enterprises located amongst the houses in shanties allow close interaction of household and informal economies. Socially, urbanisation can be advantageous as provision of education and services and basic infrastructure is often better than in rural areas, usually there are also lower levels of infant mortality and higher levels of life expectancy, as in Brazil, for example, urban levels of infant mortality we 75.4/1000 whereas in rural areas this figure was 107.5/1000. Furthermore, auto construction and self-help housing offers a solution to housing shortages.

The main negative impact of urbanisation is unemployment. With massive migration from rural areas, jobs in the urban area may not be created fast enough to meet the needs. In Lagos, for example, the official unemployment rate in 2010 was 25%. An increasing proportion of people are underfed and unemployed which has led to political unrest. Furthermore, households spend two - fifths of their income on food and the informal sector of employment is growing in size. Negative environmental impacts include the rely on buses and taxis which contribute to road congestion and stationary slow moving traffic is a local source of air pollution. Furthermore, footpaths and roads act as open-air sewers. There are many negative social impacts of urbanisation which include the lack of housing, a particular problem in Lagos which needs 10000 new houses each year, and in the slums of Mushin, there are over 4 people per room, homes are under lit and badly ventilated, water is supplied by tanker and standpipe and electricity supplies are limited. Also, Lagos is notorious for high crime and drug use is very wide spread and as the demand for health care is growing fast, the government withdrew free hospital treatment in 2000 as it was too costly.

In conclusion, the process of urbanisation occurs mostly due to in-migration, which then has an effect of natural change and the natural increase then contributes further to the process and also reclassification. There are many positive and negative impacts of urbanisation but a lot of the time the negative impacts can outweigh the positives.

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Good Essays

    With reference to examples, discuss the degree to which the level od economic development in country affects planning and management in urban areas.…

    • 1357 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Environmental Health

    • 1340 Words
    • 6 Pages

    Urbanization: Movement of people from rural to urban areas with population growth equating to urban migration. It is a double edged sword as on one hand it provides people with varied opportunities and scope for economic development and on the other hand it exposes…

    • 1340 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Urbanisation is the process in which people move from a rural area to an urban area. Levels of urbanisation are determined by looking at both the population of rural and urban areas. For the first time ever in history more people live in urban areas than in rural areas. This movement shows no sign of stopping with a predicted 1.84% increase in people living in urban areas expected between 2015 and 2020. And this disparity in rural-urban growth can be a really damaging element if the urban areas of a country aren’t prepared for the influx of people.…

    • 681 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    As people living in poor areas in more of a rural setting find it harder and harder to be able to find ways to feed their families they tend to move to the city in search of work, survival and the hope for a better life. When all the natural resources have been used up in an area, one has no choice but to move if they are going to survive. Urbanization is caused by migration of people to an area that cannot support all the people who migrate. Also people who are frustrated or wanting more out of life will also migrate to see what they can find by means of being with more people and having more out of life. “All future population growth will occur in urban areas, both from natural increase (births over deaths) and rural to urban migration.” (Population Connection, 2012).…

    • 527 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Urbanization

    • 1143 Words
    • 5 Pages

    In this paper I will be explaining the four factors that produce a change in the population as well as urbanization. Urbanization is moving from a rural area to a big city in hopes of better opportunity or employment along with many other benefits. Urbanization may seem like a good idea to those trying to better themselves but it has challenges in the city people may face. I will be providing you with current or historical events that may be a benefit or a challenge of urbanization.…

    • 1143 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    The concept of immigration

    • 1360 Words
    • 6 Pages

    “urbanization” which refers to the increase in population in big cities lead to some detrimental…

    • 1360 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Urbanization is the increasing number of people that migrate from rural to urban areas. It predominantly results in the physical growth of urban areas, be it horizontal or vertical. An example of urbanisation for an LEDC is Rio de Janeiro and Mumbai which has a population of 18.3 million put together and is still expanding; an example of an MEDC is Manchester and finally an example of an NIC that has been urbanised is Singapore.…

    • 1477 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Urbanisation growth rate is higher in cities of the south than those of the developed countries. Many urbanization processes are happening concurrently in the third world while most cities in the north such processes have stabilized with some experiencing urban renaissance.…

    • 1358 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    Urbanisation is caused by people inhabiting the cities and towns moving away from rural areas. This can be a problem because it causes Overcrowding, waste accumulation, transport systems.…

    • 2113 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    With reference to examples, assess the degree to which the level of economic development of a country affects planning and management in urban areas.…

    • 1924 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    China's Urbanization

    • 2164 Words
    • 9 Pages

    Urbanization is a historic transformation process by which the means of production and people's lifestyles evolve from the country to the city. This process is often characterized as farmers' migration to cities and the continuing development of cities, however, is in fact far more complex. Urbanization is not simply a process in which farmers move to cities. Rather, it is a complex process that not only requires co-development with industries and the entire economic system but also needs to be compatible with the conditions of employment, security, education, public transportation, medical insurance, environmental protection and infrastructure.…

    • 2164 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Urbanisation is the process by which the proportion of people living in cites and towns rises in comparison to rural areas. Urbanisation in London, England, as a developed which was at that time developing country and city, started around the 1760s continuing through to the 19th century, by which time 80% of the population was urban dwellers, sparked by the industrial revolution. So this is a time span of around 150 years, whereas in a developing country, Mumbai for example in India saw large increased of population from just under 3 million in 1951 to just over 20 million in 2010, a time period of only 60 years in comparison.…

    • 1247 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    Mega Trends

    • 581 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Historically, urbanization has been closely connected with industrialization. When more and more extinct sources of energy were used to enhance human productivity (industrialization), surpluses increased in both agriculture and industry, larger and larger proportions of a population could live in cities. With more than 60 percent of the world population expected to live in urban cities by 2025, urbanization as a trend will cause major shifts in the world population…

    • 581 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    problems ofUrbanization

    • 3446 Words
    • 13 Pages

    Urbanization generally refers to a process in which an increasing proportion of an entire population lives in cities and suburbs of cities. Historically, it has been closely connected with industrialization. Urbanization initiates industrialization-led economic growth and transition from agricultural-based income and employment to non-agriculture based livelihood opportunities. Rapid urbanization causes shift in rural livelihood base and often result in migration of the farm laborers to off-farm activities in the cities. Thus, urbanization, migration and development are inter-linked and the relationships between migration and urbanization, between urbanization and development and between migration and and development are well known. The relationships are a two-way phenomenon. With each pair one variable may be the cause as well as the effect of the other. However, to limit our discussion on migration, urbanization and development we will focus on the recent trends in migration and urbanization and the emerging critical issues, which have impact on national development in the context of Bangladesh. Further to this; since goal of development is aimed at improvement of the quality of life of an individual human being, or his/her family, our attention should logically also be directed to such a scale.…

    • 3446 Words
    • 13 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    According to Nsiah-Gyaabah (retrieved on 24 October 2011), urbanisation is the shift from a rural to an urban society, and involves an increase in the number of people in urban areas during a particular year. The author also stated that urbanisation is the outcome of social, economic and political developments that lead to urban concentration and growth of large cities, changes in land use and transformation from rural to metropolitan pattern of organization and governance.…

    • 1436 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Powerful Essays