Outline research that has shown about culture variations.
Another study about culture variation is Tronick et 01. (1992). He studied an African tribe called the Efe who live in extended family groups. The infants were looked after unlike western mothers, they were breastfed by different women. However, they did sleep with their own mother at night. The conclusion was that despite such abnormal ways, the infants, at six months, still showed one primary attachment. Another study about culture variation was Fox (1977). he studied infants raised on Israeli kibbutzim who spent most of their time being cared for in a children's home by nurses. Then using Ainsworth experiment, the strange situation, it was tested with nurse and the mother. The conclusion was that the infants were equally attached to both caregivers except in terms of reunion behaviour, where they showed greater attachment to their mothers. This suggests that the mothers were still the primary attachment figure despite the shared care. Another study study into attachment was Cross-cultural differences Grossmann and Grossmann (1991). This study found that German infants tended to be more insecurely rather than securely attached. It was though that this was because of different childcare practices, as German culture involves keeping distance between parents and children, so infants do not engage in proximity-seeking behaviours r the Strange Situation and therefore appear to be insecurely attached. Another study about culture attachment was Takahashi (1990). They used the Strange Situation experiment to study 60 middle-class Japanese infants and their mothers and found similar rates of secure attachment to those found by Ainsworth . However, unlike the original sample, the Japanese infants showed no evidence of insecure-avoidant attachedment, but instead showed high rates of insecure-resistar attachment (32%).
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