Ch.12-2, Modernization in Japan
Japan Ends Its Isolation
The Demand for Foreign Trade
Westerners tried to convince the Japanese to open their ports to trade a.
British, French, Russian and America officials occasionally anchored off the Japanese coast b.
Japan refused to receive them
1853, US commodore Matthew Perry took four ships into Tokyo harbor, socked Japanese d.
Tokugawa shogun dubiously received Perry and the letter Perry had brought form US president 2.
Fillmore’s letter asked the shogun to allow free trade between the US and Japan a.
Perry delivered w/ a threat, would come back w/ a larger fleet b.
Treaty of Kanagawa 1854: Japan opened two ports where US ships could take on supplies c.
Other Western powers followed
By 1860, opened many ports, and extended extraterritorial rights to many foreign nations B.
Meiji Reform and Modernization
The Japanese were angry that shogun had given in to the foreigners’ demands a.
Turned to Japan’s young emperor, Mutsuhito
1867, Mutsuhito took control of gov’t, chose name Meiji [“enlightened rule” ], Meiji era 2.
The Meiji emperor realized that the best way to counter Western influence was to modernize a.
Sent diplomats to Europe and N America to study Western ways b.
Japanese chose best Western civilization offer and adapted it to their country c.
Japan adopted American system of universal public education and required that all Japanese children attend school, teachers often foreign experts, students could study abroad 3.
The emperor also energetically supported following the Western path of industrialization a.
By early 20th century, Japanese economy had become as modern as any in the world b.
First railroad line in 1872, from Tokyo to port of Yokohama [20 mi south] c.
1914, Japan had more than 7000 mi of railroad
Coal production grew from half mill to more than 21 mill from 1875-1913 e.
Developing modern industries made Japan competitive with the West
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