outline history

Topics: The Gathering, Society, Paleolithic Pages: 2 (550 words) Published: January 14, 2015
The Ways We Were
A.  The First Human Societies
1.  societies were small, bands of 25–50 people
a.  relationships defined by kinship
2.  very low population density (because of available technology)  
a.  very slow population growth
b.  perhaps 10,000 people in world 100,000 years ago
c.  grew to 500,000 by 30,000 years ago
d.  reached 6 million 10,000 years ago
3.  Paleolithic bands were seasonally mobile or nomadic
a.  moved in regular patterns to exploit wild plants and animals b.  since they moved around, they couldn’t accumulate goods 4.  societies were highly egalitarian
a.  perhaps the most free people in human existence
i.  no formal chiefs, kings, bureaucrats, soldiers, priests b.  did not have specialists, so most people had the same skills  
i. male and female tasks often differed sharply
c.  relationships between women and men were far more equal than in later societies  
i.  women as gatherers provided the bulk of family food,perhaps 70 percent of diet

5.  James Cook described the gathering and hunting peoples of Australia as tranquil and socially equal  
a.  but European settlers found physical competition among Australian males, wife beating 6.  Paleolithic societies had clearly defined rules
a.  men hunted, women gathered
b.  clear rules about distribution of meat from a kill
c.  rules about incest and adultery

B.  Economy and the Environment
1.  gathering and hunting peoples used to be regarded as “primitive” and impoverished  
a.  modern studies point out that they worked fewer hours
b.  wanted or needed little
c.  but life expectancy was low (35 years on average)
2.  alteration of natural environments
a.  deliberately set fires to encourage growth of certain plants b.  extinction of many large animals shortly after humans arrived c.  gradual extinction of other hominids, like the Neanderthals (Europe) and Flores man (Indonesia)

C.  The Realm of the Spirit
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