PDP World History
Chapter #15, pgs 296-301
A. Main Idea- The Middle Ages were a time period filled with a shocking amount of chaos and calamity, although accompanied by a large amount of intellectual prosperity, political expansion, and rebirth. i. During the High Middle Ages (eleventh to thirteenth centuries) 1. The Latin Church became a strong spiritual authority in Europe. 2. Revolution in agriculture. Increased food supplies and populations. 3. Trade and commerce were reborn, towns grew, education prospered, society developed. ii. During the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance (fourteenth to early 16th centuries) 1. France and England fought in a devastating Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453) 2. Bubonic Plaque ravished Europe.
3. Schism within the Church
4. Western Civilization seemed to be collapsing with the onslaught of the Turks and the fall of Constantinople. 5. Scholars argued and pondered over the assumptions about God and his nature. 6. Humanists recovered classic knowledge and languages, beginning cultural changes that would spread through Europe. 7. Within independent nation-states, nationalism and patriotism rose. II. Revival of the Empire, Church, and Towns
A. Otto I and the Revival of the Empire
i. The Old Empire and the papacy’s fortunes rise
1. King Saxon Henry I and rebuilt royal power, leaving his successor King Otto I in a great territorial position 2. King Otto I’s reign (936-973)
a. Otto managed to get his own blood into power in Bavaria, Swabia, and Franconia. b. Invaded Italy and declared himself King in 951.
c. Defeated the Hungarians at Lechfeld in 955, securing borders against other barbarian attacks. I. Earned him the title “the Great
d. Enlisted the Church in a careful rebuilding program
I. Crowned bishops and abbots royal princes and agents of the king. e. Responded to a call of help from Pope John XII.
I. Pope John crowned Otto I emperor for helping him in 962.
f. The Church’s power became stronger under Otto’s rule. B. The Reviving Catholic Church
i. King Otto I shifted the royal focus from Germany to Italy. 1. Successors were too preoccupied with Italy, Germany fell apart. ii. Church prepared to declare its independence to a new force as revived empire began to crumble. 1. Reform within the Church was coming.
a. Cluny Reform Movement
I. Reform movement born in French monastery 910
II. Rejected subservience of the clergy to royal authority.
III. Reformers taught that the Pope was the supreme ruler over all clergy. IV. Western Separation of Church and State including the Celibacy of the Catholic clergy has its origins form this reform movement. V. The papacy embraced the reforms in the late eleventh century. iii. Investiture Struggle: Gregory VII and Henry IV
1. Pope Gregory VII condemned the lay investiture of clergy at any level under the penalty of excommunication. a. The emperor’s custom of installing bishops by gifting them the ring and staff (symbolizing Episcopal office) was what Gregory had in mind. b. The emperor, Henry IV took this as a challenge to authority. c. Territorial princes supported Gregory’s edict, wanting to see the emperor weakened. d. Henry collected his most loyal bishops, having them declare independence from Gregory. e. Gregory excommunicated Henry IV and absolved his subjects from their loyalty to him. f. Gregory begged for forgiveness by standing barefoot in the snow for some 3 days before the Pope absolved him, symbolizing the height of Papal supremacy. 2. The investiture controversy eventually ended when Emperor Henry V renounced his power to install bishops with the ring and staff. a. In exchange, Pope Calixtus II allowed for the emperors to be able to give the bishops fiefs before or after they were invested with the ring and staff by the church. b. Emperor’s still had the right to veto a candidate.
3. The outcome resulted in the pope strengthening his image and place, at the cost of diminishing imperial authority. 4. In the end, local princes ended up profiting most from the entire controversy. C. The First Crusades
i. Late in the 17th century, the Byzantine Empire came under assault and pressure from the Seljuk Turks. 1. Emperor Alexius I Comnenus appealed for help from the West. a. Pope Urban II accepted by launching the first Crusade.
I. Religion, hot-blood, and greed were influential in the launching of the Crusades. II. Planned out and executed very carefully by the revived papacy. III. Promised participants of the First Crusade plenary indulgence should they die in battle. Removal of all mortal sins, etc… IV. Sparked anti-Jewish riots and protests across Europe.
V. Beat Seljuk army after army until Jerusalem fell to the Crusaders in 1099. 2. Latin presence in the east began to crumble after the First Crusade. a. A Second Crusade was a dismal failure.
b. A Third Crusade was also a great failure and the Holy Lands remained Muslim. 3. The Crusades did help replenish and stimulate Western trade and cultural presence in the East.