Ottoman Empire

Topics: Ottoman Empire, World War I, Selim III Pages: 3 (615 words) Published: August 26, 2013
Ottoman Turkey Before WWI
- “The Sick Man of Europe” -

1. Background Information
• The Ottomans established their rule over the other Turkish peoples in the period 1451 – 1481 when the Seljuk Turks were in decline • Their empire grew through the Middle East and Europe reaching its peak in the 16th century under Selim I & Sulayman the Magnificent • During this time their greatest foe was Austria-Hungary and Spain and therefore their held an alliance with France

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2. Decline of the Ottoman Empire
• In the mid 18th the empire fell into a state of complacency which began their long term decline: ← 1768 – 1774defeats in Romania to Russia

← 1787 – 1792defeat to Russia

← 1798Napoleon threatened Egypt

← 1829Serbia gained independence

← 1830Greece gained independence with the help of Britain & Russia

← 1876Bulgarian Christians slaughtered thousands of Muslims which saw the retaliation known as the Bulgarian Atrocities

← 1877War with Russia saw the Ottomans lose most of Bulgaria; Montenegro become independent; Austria-Hungary possess Bosnia & Herzegovina & Britain gain Cyprus

← 1911Italy seized Tripoli

← 1912 – 1913The Balkan Wars saw the Ottomans lose most of their territory in the Balkans & therefore Europe

3. Domestic Issues
• The Ottomans held the belief that leadership was a divine right bestowed upon a family despite the fact that this went against the Islamic practice of elected leadership • In return for a poll tax, monotheistic religious groups were accepted in society. The dominant groups included; Jews, Greek Orthodox and Armenians. This system functioned effectively until threatened by rising nationalist sentiment. • Reform was the main issue plaguing the Ottoman leadership. Successive leaders responded to crises by either...
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