Exam Registration No. is FS13/N/50069
Q.6 ) Explain the different stages of conflict.
Answer: The presence of incompatible goals, thoughts or emotions within or between individuals or groups leads to confrontation. Therefore we can say that conflict may be the result of incongruent or incompatible relationship between people. Conflicts occurs when :
▪ Mutually exclusive goals or values exist in fact, or are perceived to exist, by the groups involved ;
▪ Interaction is characterized by behavior designed to defeat , reduce or suppress the opponent , or to gain a mutually designated victory ;
▪ The groups face each other with mutually opposing actions and counteractions ;
▪ Each group attempts to create a favored position vis – a – vis the other.
The traditional perspective on conflict is negative. According to this , the presence of conflict indicates that something is wrong , and therefore it should be eliminated.
The contemporary perspective describes conflict as neither inherently good nor bad but as inevitable. Too much can have negative consequences ; too little can also be negative in that such a state can lead to apathy and lethargy and provide little or no impetus for change and innovation.
Conflict is to view it as a dynamic rather than a static concept. It can be seen as a sequence of conflict stages – latent , perceived, felt , manifest and aftermath.
➢ Latent : Conflict begins when the conditions for it exist. Individuals or groups may have power differences, compete for scarce resources, strive for autonomy, have different goals, or experience diverse role pressures. These are the foundations for disagreement , competition and conflict.
➢ Perceived : Individuals or group members know that conflict exists.
➢ Felt : When one or more parties feel tense or anxious , conflict has moved beyond the perceived stage. Conflict becomes personalized to the individuals or groups involved.
➢ Manifest : Oven behavior whose intention is to place obstacles in the path of those pursuing a particular goal occurs. Open aggression and withdrawal of support illustrate manifest conflict. At this stage conflict must be resolved or used constructively in order that effective organizational performance continue.
➢ Aftermath : The final stage of conflict is the situation after it has resolved or suppressed. The conflict aftermath describes the outcome of the conflict – it may result in supportive , paternalistic or advanced relationships . It could revert back to a latent stage or continue unabated at the manifest stage perhaps taking a new twist or direction.
Conflict is inevitable in organizational life , but it need not be destructive. Depending on how it is
managed, the negative effects may be minimized and positive ones may result. Effective conflict
managed is based , in part , on a solid understanding of the different ways that conflict emerges
and can be resolved.
Q. 5 ) Write an essay on Organizational Structure.
Answer: Organizations influence the influence the behaviors of their members. Therefore, if we can design organizations in such a way as to promote greater efficiency and higher levels of motivation, this will go a long way in achieving their ultimate goals. An organization`s structure provides the context for work. Though most of us have little influence on how an organization is structured, it is important for us to understand the constraints and opportunities provided in different organizations in order to use them to full effect.
Different organizations can have very different structures. Structures relates to the pattern of relationships between positions in the organization and the people assigned to those positions. The primary function of structure is the division of work among members of the organization, and the co-ordination of...
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