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Organization of Knowledge

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Organization of Knowledge



INTRODUCTION The major activities of any given library revolved on acquisition, processing, preservation and organization of relevant information resources (book and non-book materials) for effective accessibility to the target users. Nwalo (2003) describes that a library is primarily set up to acquire, organize, store and make accessible to the users, within the quickest possible time all forms of information materials which they require. He further notes that the systematic acquisition, organization and dissemination of books, not mere label distinguishes a library from either a recording room or a storehouse of books. In librarianship, several efforts have been made to facilitate effective retrieval of information. These efforts or devices centred on what is known as “Organization of Knowledge”. The word organization in this context, refers to a systematic description and arrangement of available information resources in a given centre or library for easy accessibility. The adoption of organizing library materials also stemmed from the fact that its non application can result to poor patronage and wastage of devoted efforts (human, finance and material). Abstracting, cataloguing, classification and indexing are useful instruments for a successful organization of library/information materials. However, cataloguing which is a detailed bibliographic description of library collection is the major focus. It is obvious that a library patron according to Kumar and Kumar (1991) is expected to use the collection of a library either for study or research or reference and at any one time, the user may be handicapped in locating all the needed materials or documents on the shelf. In order to know about the complete collection, reliance has to be placed on a dependable tool called the catalogue in a library. A library catalogue is an indispensable instrument, which promotes the use of library materials.
a. Cataloguing is the art of describing materials according to the most important details that will guide or inform the reader or user as to how to locate the materials on the shelves and to know about materials bibliographically.
b. Cataloguing is the description of a book or any other medium of information such that the important bibliographic information are highlighted. These features include author (producer, translator, etc), title, edition, place of publication, publisher and date of publication, etc. It also indicates the subject of the work and its physical features like pagination, illustrations and dimension, (Afolabi, 1986).
c. American Library Association (1992) defines cataloguing as the activities which are essential in the preparation of bibliographic records for a catalogue.
d. Cataloguing is the process of producing relevant entries on a given book or material in a library for easy identification. The production of the entries will require the use of the various particulars of a given material like author, title, imprint, etc.
WHAT IS A CATALOGUE? Literarily, a catalogue is a list of items, materials or publications in a given establishment, institution or organization. Technically, a catalogue is a list of publications or information materials in library or group of libraries arranged according to some definite plan. It can also be referred to as an index, inventory or key to the library collections, and which enables a user to locate a book whose author, title or subject is know with a minimum time. The library catalogue is a finding tool for its users. It’s a directory of the holding of a particular library and so facilitates retrieval of information from the materials held by the library (Afolabi, 1986). In summary, a catalogue is an instrument designed to enable the library user to locate a particular book whose particulars are known to him, within a short time. In fact, without a catalogue it would be impossible to know what is available and where in the library. The person who prepares a catalogue is called a cataloguer, while the professional staff who heads the cataloguing section is known as Cataloguing librarian or Chief cataloguer. The cataloguer studies the document and record in standard form for potential library user. The job according to Needham (1991) requires intellectual efforts, steadiness, patience and tidiness. There are standard international rules on cataloguing and these have been incorporated in a document referred to as Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules II (AACRII). In many libraries, two catalogues tend to be kept. The first one is the public catalogue which users are expected to use, and, the shelf list which is a catalogue that is exclusively for the use of the cataloguing staff.
Some library users usually prefer to consult the catalogue first before proceeding to the shelves where books are already arranged by subject. In the case of others, however, once they have established where the documents on their subject area are located prefer to ignore the catalogue and proceed to the shelves. Arrangement of document on the shelves in organized groups facilitates usage or research by users. It is true that some users ignore the catalogue and prefer to browse through the collection, but the fact remains that the catalogue is the key to the library. It is the quickest way of finding out if a library has a particular document or not. The shelves may not provide that kind of information. It is more reliable to use the catalogue to determine a library’s strong and weak area. It is the catalogue that the librarian will consult in meeting a request for a document of which the librarian does not know its location on the shelf. The catalogue is thus, an information retrieval system that is valuable to both library staff and users. In most cases, the catalogue that records the documents in more than one library is generally referred to as a Union catalogue.
OBJECTIVES OF A CATALOGUE Provision of catalogue in a library has certain objectives to achieve particularly the promotion of retrieval system. In a nutshell, the followings are the major objectives of a library catalogue: i. To permit a person or user to identify an information material whose author, title or subject is known; ii. To know the total collection of a given library by a given author or on a given subject and in a given format; iii. To assist the primary or potential users of a catalogue in the choice of a document/material as to it edition, format etc.; iv. To reduce the minimum time of information retrieval. In other words, the library catalogue avoids time wastage. Nwalo (2003) explained that an average library user spend much time searching for a given work or works on a given subject if he fails to make necessary reference to the public catalogue; v. To know certain materials a library has in a particular series (African Writers Series, Pacesetter Series, etc.).
FUNCTIONS OF THE CATALOGUE The catalogue has various functions in the library which Afolabi (1986) identified as follows:
1. To record each work in a library by author, editor, illustrator, commentator, series or by any other person, body or name under which a reader might look, to the extent that is desirable for a particular library;
2. To arrange author entries in such a way that all the works of one writer will be found together under the same name, a procedure that enable reader to find a specific work or to give the literary output of an author as represented in the library;
3. To record each work in the library, and even parts of a work, under the subjects of which it treats;
4. To arrange subject entries so that like topic will fall together and related topic will correlate;
5. To record titles of work when necessary;
6. To employ cross-references by which a reader may be guided from one entry in the catalogue to another;
7. To provide description of each publication by giving title, imprint, and collation, etc.;
8. To list the call numbers by which publications may be located or obtained in the library or on the shelves.
PHYSICAL FORMS OF THE CATALOGUE This entails the object or surface on which relevant information or particulars about a given material in the library are recorded on for a detailed description and easy accessibility. Presently, the four most generally accepted physical forms of catalogue in libraries are: card, book, sheaf and automated. When deciding on which form of catalogue to adopt, a librarian would take the following qualities into account as identified by Afolabi (1986):
a. The form of catalogue should be flexible, because new entries must constantly be added to the catalogue as books are added to library collection.
b. The catalogue must be kept to date.
c. Like entries should stand together.
d. Entries for withdrawn books be easily removed from the catalogue.
e. The catalogue should be accessible and convenient for readers and staff.
f. The catalogue should be portable to be used within the library or outside.
g. The catalogue should be economic both to produce and maintain.
1. The Card Catalogue: The card catalogue consist of cards, that are usually 5X3 inches (12.5cm x 7.5cm) with each entry being on a separate card; all the cards are then filed in a series of drawers altogether constituting a catalogue cabinet. Cards can be easily interfiled. It meets the above specification in the following ways:
(a) Cards are flexible units,
(b) New entries can be added at anytime
(c) Like entries can be filed together
(d) Cards can be removed when books are withdrawn,
(e) Cards can be removed or changed and replaced by new cards therefore, the catalogue can be kept up to date.
(f) It is only accessible where it stands in the library although the catalogues trays can be removed.
(g) It is economic to produce.
2. The Book Catalogue: This is a set of entries that are recorded or printed in pages and bound together in a book form usually a volume or more. In essence, the entries appearing in a card catalogue (or sheaf) may be put into permanent book form.
i. The book catalogue is portable thus, can be consulted or used anywhere in the library or at home. ii. A page of book catalogue contains many entries that could be glanced at a time unlike card catalogue. iii. It occupies less space.
However, new entries cannot be added except the whole catalogue is reissued since the entries are not movable units. * It is more costly than card catalogue in term of production. * It is fixed and therefore gets out of date immediately it is published.
3. The Sheaf Catalogue: The sheaf catalogue consists of sheets or slips put into loose leaf binder of the same size as the cards. The slips are of various sizes, but the standard size is 7X3 or 4X4 inches. Watch binder is capable of holding 500-650 standard sized slips, and are filed in a series of pigeon-holes that form a catalogue cabinet.
The Sheaf Catalogue has the following qualities are: (a) It is flexible and allows easy insertion and withdrawal. (b) It is portable. (c) It is more economic than the card catalogue, because the slips are cheaper.
4. The Automated Catalogue: The automated catalogue is a catalogue whose entries or cataloguing information are recorded in computer and other forms of technology against the conventional methods. In essence, it is the application of computers and other technological devices in the storing, processing and retrieval of various catalogue entries. The union catalogue is more facilitated among the participating libraries through computer networks. The advantages of automated catalogue include:
i. It allows speedy and easy access to users, ii. It promotes network among cooperating libraries iii. It helps to avoid duplication of entries iv. It facilitates easy integration of entries
v. It promotes research activities of users.
PHYSICAL MAKE UP A BOOK There are fundamental parts of a book/information material which must be verified in gathering relevant information for cataloguing process. In fact, the success of a cataloguer depends on the retrieval of such essential cataloguing information through the book parts. The following are some essential parts of a book:
1. Cover: This is a substance or object that is meant to protect the intellectual content of a book so as to be durable. It is usually a paper or hard cover. The cover contains a brief hint on the book especially the title and the author’s name. The information on the cover is usually the first guide for an information searcher or cataloguer.
2. Half Title Page: It is a page which precedes the full title page but which only contain the title of a book. This page is also referred to as bastard title page.
3. Full Title Page or Title Page: This is a page which provides a more detailed information about a given book particularly the title, sub-title, author(s), publisher, place of publication, etc.
4. Sub-title: The secondary or explanatory title which immediately followed the title. It usually explains the objective or purpose of the book or showing its limitation. For example “Fundamentals of library practice: A manual on library routines”
5. Running Title: This is the title which is repeated throughout the book especially on top of each page.
6. Author: This is a person, group of persons or corporate body that is responsible for the writing of the intellectual content of a book. When two or more persons involve in writing of a book is known as “joint authorship”. A corporate author is a body, establishment or institution responsible for the writing of a book or publication e.g. Federal University of Technology, Minna, West African Examination Council, National Universities Commission, etc.
7. Editor: A person who prepares somebody’s work for publication. In other words, he is a person responsible for the supervision (editing, publishing, etc.) of a publication like journal, newspaper, or book.
8. Complier: A collector or organizer of written or printed material gathered from various sources or from one or more authors and who arrange for it for publication. A person responsible for the listing and publication of a bibliography is also regarded as a complier.
9. Author Series: It is a set of publications or works issued by an author or group of authors in a uniform style under a collective title e.g. African Writer Series.
10. Monograph Series: This is a set of monograph (e.g. book) issued by a group, society or institution with a collective title and in a uniform style e.g. Pacesetters Series.
11. Preface: It is a forum whereby an author expressed the objectives or purpose of writing the book, its scope and the target readers. Sometimes, an author uses the preface to stress chapter’s presentation and organization of the book or publication.
12. Edition: The whole number of copies of a work printed from the same type or plates and issued at the same time. An edition may comprise a number of impressions or reprints.
13. Revised Edition: This is a situation where certain adjustment or corrections have been made on a book which may involves addition or subtraction of certain contents. Revision is usually done in order to review or up-date a book with modern or contemporary issues of facts. The latest edition usually contains comprehensive and up to date information e.g. 2nd edition, 3rd edition, etc.
14. Impression: It is the total number of copies of a book printed at the same time and from the same type or plates. An edition may consist of several impressions provided no alternatives or revision are made.
15. Reprint: This is a reproduction of a book from the same types or plates as addition copies or usage.
16. Imprint: This is a term which connotes the place of publication, publishers and date of publication of a book. Imprint is currently known as publication distribution.
17. Collation: A term which specifies pagination, volumes and illustration. The pagination includes both the preliminary and intellectual content pages. The volume involves the number of parts available for a given publication while illustration deals with designs provided in the book to facilitate readers’ understanding of the content e.g. chart, diagram, photograph, map, table, etc.
18. Copyright: An expressed permission granted to an author by the constituted authority (government) as a way of protecting his/her right from impermissible use or reproduction by another person. It gives the author the right for certain period to manufacture and print his own production. The date when the grant was given to the author is usually provided in the book particularly at the verso of the title page.
19. Verso Page: A page that is behind another page. In librarianship, a verso page of the title page of a book is usually given much consideration because it contains much information, particularly, cataloguing information. Information such as copyright owner, copyright date, publisher, place of publication, Cataloguing in Publication, (CIP), etc. are usually available in the verso page.
20. Table of Content: A list of the preliminaries and chapter headings of a book showing pages on which they begin. It is also a list of musical works contained in a printed collection of music or in an album of gramophone records or discs.
21. Index: A systematic list of terms, topics or keywords; names of persons, places etc. which have been mentioned in a book alphabetically arranged pointing out their exact positions in the volume, usually by page number.
22. Bibliography: It is a systematic list of works or publications arranged in an alphabetical order.
23. References: A systematic list of works or publications which a writer has extracted certain facts from in the course of writing and alphabetically arranged.

DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUING A cataloguer or cataloguing student is expected to know certain information on a given material while embarking on a descriptive cataloguing. This information is retrievable from library material (book, magazine, film, video, etc.). The act of identifying the required information in each material is known as cataloguing information search. It is imperative to mention that there is a standard technique or method that has been universally recommended as rule for descriptive cataloguing, thus referred to as Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules II (AACR II). There are eight or nine elements that are required to be noted and incorporated in the descriptive cataloguing as evident in the AACR II. The elements are:
(1) Heading (2) Title (3) Author statement (4) Edition statement
(5) Imprint (6) Collation (7) Notes (8) Standard number
(9) Tracing/Added entries.
a. Author heading: The surname or the element of the name by which an author is commonly identified is capitalized followed by the forenames or other names. A comma separates the surname from the other names e.g. ABOLAJI, Habeebullahi.
b. Subject heading: Capitalize the word describing the subject, e.g LIBRARY SCIENCE, SOCIOLOGY, etc.
c. Title heading: Capitalize only the first significant words not definite and identified article like “An” “A” and “The” e.g. The History of Nupe land.
2. TITLE: The first word of the title is written after an indention of three or four letter spaces under the heading. A sub-title is separated from the main title with a colon. E.g. Library Science: Understanding Reference Services.
3. AUTHOR STATEMENT: This is also known as statement of responsibility and which is usually given immediately after the title but making use of slash to separate them. E.g. / by Abdulganiy Okanla Ahmad.
4. EDITION STATEMENT: This is separated from author statement or title by a full stop and a small dash (-) and it is abbreviated as: 2nd ed. or 3rd ed. or 4th ed. It should be noted that a material of first edition is not usually documented except it is second to third, etc. edition. A sample here is -2nd ed.
5. IMPRINT/PUBLICATION DISTRIBUTION: The publication statement sometimes is separated from edition statement or sometimes author statement by a full stop and a small dash (-). It consists of place of publication, publisher and date of publication; a comma separates the publisher from the date and a full stop at the end of the date, which is usually an additional date. Copyright date or revised date is the most essential during cataloguing while impression date is ignored. Reprint date is enclosed in round bracket. In addition, a place of publication nearer to a particular library is most preferred. E.g. Ibadan: Longman Publishers Ltd., 2004 or Ilorin: Al-Nurul-huda Publishers, 2005 (2006 reprint).
6. COLLATION/PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION: The description here centres on three aspects i.e the pagination, illustration and size. The pagination consists of the preliminary pages which are usually numbered in roman figure while the content pages are numbered in Arabic numerals. The illustration includes diagrams, graphs, charts, tables, photographs etc. used in the book to promote better understanding of certain concepts or ideas. It is imperative however to mention that the size of a book is not significant in the modern times. The pagination is usually separated from illustration with a colon. E.g vii, 293 p.:III.; diagrams, tables.
7. NOTES: This involves the inclusion of appendix, bibliography, index or references if provided in the book/material being catalogued. It is more appropriate to arrange such items alphabetically and in a separate paragraph which closely followed the collation.
8. STANDARD NUMBER: This consists of the registration number given to a book having satisfied the necessary conditions for publication. This number is universally accepted and is of two categories. The standard number given to a book is known as International Standard Book Number (ISBN) while that of serial publication is International Standard Serials Number (ISSN).
9. ADDED ENTRIES OR TRACINGS: These are other access points to the document in a library catalogue. This is an alternative means of assisting a library user to access a publication whose author, subject or title is known. It is another effort of acknowledging other entries that have been provided for the same book or document in the catalogue on different headings. For instance, if the heading of an entry is Author, added entries will be provided for Subject and Title; and vice-versa.
SELECTED CATALOGUING RULES (AACR 2) The objective here is to provide a summary of the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules on access points to publications that a cataloguer (librarian) or cataloguing student would frequently be confronted with, when cataloguing or indexing a publication.
1. Work of Single Authorship: A work by one author is expected to entered under that author or corporate body’s name e.g. OMOPUPA, Kamaldeen; University of Ilorin.
2. Works of Shared Responsibility:
i. Principal Responsibility Indicated: A work of shared responsibility is usually entered under a person or corporate body’s name if that author’s name is indicated by wording or layout as the one that is principally responsible for the work. Added entries are to be made for the other authors if they are not more than two. ii. Principal Responsibility not Indicated: Enter a work by two or three person under the first named author if the principal responsibility is not attributed to any of them. Added entries are to be made for the other authors.
3. Work Produced Under Editorial Direction:
i. With Collective Title: A cataloguer should enter under the collective title, a work consisting of contribution by different persons or bodies produced under editorial. Added entry is to be made for the principal compiler/editor if they are more than three. If there is no indication of a principal compiler/editor, added entry can be produced for the one named first. ii. Without Collective Title: Enter a work consisting of the contributions of other persons under the title of the first contribution if there is no collective title for the work. Added entries are to be made for the other editors/compilers and the works they edited or compiled.
4. Translations: The heading of an entry for a translated work should be placed under its original author. Added entry is to be made for the translator.
5. Adaptation of Works: An adapted work is made under the name of the adapter. Added entry is to be produced for the original author and the title of the work.
6. Music: A musical work is usually entered under its composer.
7. Illustrated Work: A work of shared responsibility or authorship is produced under the author named first. Added entry to be made for an illustrator of a work if.
a. The illustrators name is prominently displayed
b. The illustration occupy half or more of the item
c. The illustrations form an important part of the work
8. Revisions of Texts: A revised work is essential to be entered under the original author if he or she is named in the work and is still considered to be responsible for the work. Added entry is to be made for the reviser, abridger etc. A revised work should be produced under the reviser, etc if the original author is no longer considered to be responsible for the work.
9. Pseudonyms: Enter a work that an author used a pseudonymous name instead of the real name under the pseudonymous name. Added entry is to be made for the real name of the author if it is known.
10. Works of unknown or uncertain authorship: Works whose authorship is not known should be entered under the title.
11. Corporate bodies: Enter a work by one or more corporate bodies under the name of the appropriate corporate body.

i. Enter a work by an institution under the official name of that institution. E.g. Federal University of Technology Minna, Bayero University Kano, Kwara State University Malete, National Examination Council, etc. ii. Enter a work by a body subordinate to the institution as a sub-heading of the name of the institution which it is subordinates E.g. Kwara Polytechnic Ilorin, Institute of Technology or Kwara State polytechnic, Institute of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering.
B. SOCIETIES/GOVERNMENT BODIES: Enter a work by a society, association, etc. under the name of the society or association e.g.
(i) Nigerian Library Association (ii) Nigeria, Civil Service Commission (iii) Nigeria, Supreme Court
TYPES OF CATALOGUE There are two types or inner forms of catalogue and which include:
1. Dictionary catalogue, and.
2. Classified catalogue
Dictionary catalogue: This is a catalogue whereby various headings of entries (author, title, subject and series) are arranged or interfiled together alphabetically in the same cabinet. In a library where there are much or bulky entries, the dictionary catalogue can be further divided into author/title catalogue and subject catalogue which will contain subject entries and cross references.
Classified catalogue: This can be described as a catalogue whose entry headings are notational symbols of a given classification scheme and arranged according to the order of the scheme. The classified catalogue facilitates easy retrieval of needed materials and thus, very helpful to researchers.
N:B: It is imperative to mention that the number of entries for each book or information material is determined by the number of authors and subject inclination. There are books of single author, joint author and multiple authors.
Single Author
ISS. ISSA, Abdulwahab Olanrewaju A Beginner’s Text on Librarianship/by
Abdulwahab Olanrewaju Issa.- Ilorin: Longman Publishers, 2003. X, 130p.: ill.; diagram, photos, tables
Includes references ISBN – 978 – 34656 – 8 – 0 1. Library Science I. Title 020
ISS. ISSA, Abdulwahab Olanrewaju A Beginner’s Text on Librarianship/by
Abdulwahab Olanrewaju Issa.- Ilorin: Longman Publishers, 2003. X, 130p.: ill.; diagram, photos, tables
Includes references ISBN – 978 – 34656 – 8 – 0 2. Library Science I. Title Author entry (main entry)

ISS. A BEGINNER’S TEXT ON LIBRARIANSHIP ISSA, Abdulwahab Olanrewaju A Beginner’s Text on Librarianship / by Abdulwahab Olanrewaju Issa.- Ilorin: Longman Publishers, 2003. X, 130p.: ill.; diagram, photos, tables. Includes references ISBN – 978 – 34656 – 8 – 0 1. Library Science I. ISSA, Abdulwahab Olanrewaju 020
ISS. A BEGINNER’S TEXT ON LIBRARIANSHIP ISSA, Abdulwahab Olanrewaju A Beginner’s Text on Librarianship / by Abdulwahab Olanrewaju Issa.- Ilorin: Longman Publishers, 2003. X, 130p.: ill.; diagram, photos, tables. Includes references ISBN – 978 – 34656 – 8 – 0 1. Library Science I. ISSA, Abdulwahab Olanrewaju Title entry

ISSA, Abdulwahab Olanrewaju A Beginner’s Text on Librarianship / by Abdulwahab Olanrewaju Issa- Ilorin: Longman Publishers, 2003. X, 130p.: ill,; diagram, photos, tables. Includes references ISBN – 978 – 34656 – 8 – 0 1. ISSA, Abdulwahab Olanrewaju I, Title 020
ISSA, Abdulwahab Olanrewaju A Beginner’s Text on Librarianship / by Abdulwahab Olanrewaju Issa- Ilorin: Longman Publishers, 2003. X, 130p.: ill,; diagram, photos, tables. Includes references ISBN – 978 – 34656 – 8 – 0 1. ISSA, Abdulwahab Olanrewaju I, Title Subject entry

FILING This can be described as a systematic technique or method by which the catalogue entries are arranged according to certain order, usually alphabetical or classified. The alphabetical system of filling is further divided into two i.e. “word by word” and “letter by letter”. It should be cleared that the headings of entries are the essential elements that are considered while embarking on filling job. The following are examples:
A. Word by Word Letter by Letter New book Newark New England New book New Era Newell New foundation New England New land New Era New metamorphosis New foundation New Mexico New land New mosque New metamorphosis New Port New Mexico New York New mosque Newark New Port Newell News News letter News letter News line News line Newswatch New York
B. Word by Word Letter by Letter Post card Postage Post exchange Post card Post Master Postdate Post mortem Poster Post Office Poste restante Postage Posterity Postdate Postern Poste restant Post exchange Poster Postgraduate Posterity Postilion Postern Post Master Postgraduate Post mortem Postilion Post office Postpone Postpone Posture Posture Filling, as a matter of fact, is an activity which requires adequate attention. The cataloguers and cataloguing students are encouraged to devote much time and attention in order to achieve effective filling in the library catalogue. The better the filling of the entries, the easier the location or identification of the needed materials by users.
AUTHORITY FILES Authority file is a concept in librarianship and particularly in cataloguing which consists of two terms or key words i.e. “authority” and “file”. For a better understanding it is essential to know what is an authority and what a file means. Oxford Advanced Dictionary of current English (1980) describes “Authority” as power or right to give orders and make others obey. In another instance, it regards it as a book or person that supplies reliable information or evidence. A “file” in its own case is referred to a holder, cover, case, box, drawer, etc. for keeping paper, information, etc together in an order for reference purposes.
In the context of cataloguing, “authority can be understood as origin, source or power of certain cataloguing devices or formats; while “file” is the record, document or drawer which will be referred to in cataloguing section for subsequent assignments. Therefore, an authority file can be defined as a record of information on certain cataloguing procedures in a given library and which will be a continue point of reference. In other words, it is a document established by cataloguer(s) of a given library or information centre containing essential guidelines to be followed for the production of entries and which will always be referred to.
Authority file as described by Kumar and Kumar (1991) is a record of the decisions taken by a cataloguer. In a library, keeping or maintenance of authority file is essential to avoid duplication of efforts. For instance, a cataloguer will ascertain from the file (record) whether a particular book or material has been catalogued or not. Authority file can be made for all forms of catalogues. Besides, the staff manual, authority file recording decisions about individual items can be very useful. Obviously, this helps in maintaining consistency in the rendering of headings. For instance, in dictionary catalogue, author heading should be uniform in relation with all titles entered in the catalogue by the same author taking in cognizance the full name of the author, initials, pseudonym, changes in name due to marriage, etc or variations in spellings on account of transliteration from one language to another. All these variations are not shown while rending the heading, but are brought out through cross references.
In addition, it can be acknowledged that there is the necessity of establishing authority of the name in order to ensure uniformity in the heading. The cataloguer is thus required to choose a particular form of the name for rendering in the catalogue. This should be the form of the name widely known to the general public or researchers.
An authority file can similarly be useful for recording local variations, subject headings and cross references, etc. There are numerous decisions that are taken by cataloguers which cannot be found in the staff manual, which only provides the broad guidelines, leaving details to the authority file. In essence, authority file tends to enhance uniformity and consistency in the form of producing entries in the catalogue.
Lists of subject headings and in fact, all index languages can be regarded as authority files. The headings and references which have been used are ticked off so that a cataloguer can see at a glance when cataloguing a document which references need to be made and which are already in the catalogue. (Needham, 1991).
Authority files can be produced und3er the Author, title and subject. By this, there are author authority file, title authority file and subject authority file.
CROSS REFERENCES Cross reference is also known as references. The term references is derived from a word “refer” which means direct or guide. Literarily, cross references can be defined as techniques or means of directing someone from one thing or item to another. Technically, Olanlokun and Salisu (1998) described cross references as methods by which a library user or an information seeker is refer from one form of heading to another in the catalogue. In essence, this involves the act of directing a reader or patron from one heading (or topic) in a given book to another. For instance, a reader consulting certain topic in Encyclopedia Britannica volume 3 can be referred to another heading in the same volume or another where the relevant information needed can be retrieved. Prytherch (2000), in his own view regarded cross reference as “directions from one heading to another’.
The primary objective of adopting a cross reference device in the library and particularly in cataloguing is to facilitate retrieval of needed information with ease for the potential users of a given library. When an information material (book or non-book) has been assigned a subject heading, Westby (1995), suggested that appropriate attention must be given to the catalogue to make sure that the reader (user) who is searching for the material will not fail to find it because of insufficient guidance or direction by means of references. Consequently, the effort of providing cross reference services is to create an atmosphere of convenience for library clientele when searching for an item.
Another purpose for cross reference service is economy of cataloguing. This entails that the financial implication or expenses of providing full entries for heading in the catalogue cannot be accommodated by every library. Provision of cross references therefore, is an alternative way of reducing the number of detailed entries for a given book in the library.
Moreover, Needham (1991) and Kumar and Kumar (1991) had considered production of an added entry as extravagance. Thus, the most economic step is to embark on a reference technique i.e a direction from one heading to another and which is also the best option to added entries. The illustration of this can be seen in the catalogue where a cross reference is made from the title to the author entry for details.
In many cases as a matter of fact, the option or zeal to adopt an added entry or cross reference system depends on a policy of a library. However, there are quite number of reasons why references should be preferred particularly because of the economy (financial implication). For example, entries could be provided for a book written by Sherifat Hussein-Abubakar under both Hussein-Abubakar, Sherifat; and Abubakar, Sherifat Hussein. The application of this kind of system in the catalogue will also prompt the cataloguer to make provision for other books written by this writer. It would be much appropriate to choose the cross reference system by selecting only one heading e.g. Hussein-Abubakar, Sherifat and then refer from the other:
Abubakar, Sherifat Hussein- see Hussein-Abubakar, Sherifat.
Furthermore, the same principle can be applied to synonyms in subject headings. For example, a library material on wages can be catalogued under the heading WAGES while a further added entry made under SALARIES, but to select one and to refer from the other will result in a great saving whenever further documents on that subject are being catalogued.
Types of Cross References
Anglo-American cataloguing Rules II identified the followings as the various types of cross references:
1. See reference
2. See also reference
3. Name-title reference
4. Explanatory reference The most prominent or basic types of cross references as noted by Bloomberg (1997) are the first two i.e. the “see” and “see also” references.
See Reference
This is a system or method in librarianship which refer or direct an information seeker from a heading not used to a heading used in the catalogue. In essence, the function of a “see” reference is to guide the user of a catalogue from a form of the name of a person or a corporate body, or subject or the title of a work (book) that might actually be sought, to the form of heading that has been chosen as a name or subject heading or a uniform title. A see reference simply says to the user, “No you won’t find what you are looking for under the heading you have in mind; but you should look under the alternative heading, you will find something relevant. For example:
Abdullahi Bayero College See Bayero University
Assembly libraries See Legislative libraries
Commercials, Radio See Radio advertising
Comparative literature See Literature, comparative
Computer control See Automation
Concentration See Attention
Football See Soccer
Geographical Regions of Nigeria See Nigeria-Regional Geography
Historical Criticism See Historiography
Holy Scripture See Qur’an
Hussein Sherifat See Hussein-Abubakar, Sherifat
International Business Machines See I.B.M.
Islam See Religions
Islamic Jurisprudence See Fiqhu
Mahfouz, Naguib See Mahfuz, Najib
N.L.A. See Nigerian Library Association
Public Libraries See Libraries
Skull See Head
Staff See Personnel
Verse See Poetry
Weekly, Frieda See Lawrence, Frieda.

The above illustrations revealed that a library or catalogue user wishing to search for information on “Assembly libraries” for instance, may not identify any entry in the catalogue under that heading but under “Legislative libraries”. It may be glaring that though the list on the left hand side of the above example may be the familiar terms/headings to the users but, detailed entries for them can only be retrieved or located under the list shown on the opposite side of the example.
See also reference It is a technique in the catalogue which direct user from a heading used or familiar with to related or similar headings also used in the catalogue but, which the user may not know. In other words, the function of ‘see also” reference is to guide the user from one name heading or uniform title in the catalogue to another that is related to it. A “see also’ reference says to the user, “Yes, there is some information in the catalogue under the heading you have in mind and that you can also find related information under another heading provided”. Examples of such related headings are:

Al-Kitab See also Al-Qur’an
Community life See also Neighborhood
Companies See also Corporations
Conception-prevention See also Birth control
Data processing See also Digital computers
God See also Allah
Librarianship See also Library science
Language Laboratories See also Languages,Modern- study and Technology
Law See also Legal ethics
Journalism See also Mass Communication
Personnel See also Man power
Soldiers See also Veterans
Wages See also Salaries

The examples made above show that a catalogue user has a double advantage of retrieving related information at both sides. For instance, a user looking for information under the heading of “companies” has also the privilege of getting related information under “corporations” and vice-versa,
CLASSIFIED CATALOGUE The two major types of catalogue as previously discussed are (a) dictionary catalogue (b) classified catalogue. To understand the basic difference between the two, it is essential to refresh your memory on what dictionary catalogue is. Dictionary Catalogue is a type of catalogue which contains diverse entries on author, title and subject (in natural language) and thus interfiled or arranged together alphabetically in the same cabinet. This, in other words, involves an alphabetical system of arranging entries. However, classified catalogue as stressed in the “Librarian’s Glossary” is “a catalogue in which the entries are arranged in classified order of subjects, whether logically, in systematic order, exhibiting hierarchical relationship between subjects”. Afolabi (1986), in his own perspective, described classified catalogue as a catalogue whose entry headings are notational symbols of the classification scheme (DDC, LC or UDC) in use and arranged according to the order of the scheme. To complement the classified catalogue according to him, a subject index is devised or constructed by translating the notational symbols used in the classified catalogue to natural language.
In essence, a catalogue in which subject entries are arranged according to a scheme of classification is referred to as classified catalogue. It is a subject approach catalogue, in which the entries are arranged according to a particular classification scheme that is being adopted by a library. Kumar and Kumar (1991), observed that a classified catalogue is not sufficient by itself or self independent because it fails to satisfy author, title and subject approach of a reader. Though, the subject approach can be used if a user knows the layout of the scheme but, may be too much to expect from an ordinary user. Thus, an alphabetical index consisting of author, title and subject entries is essential.
For effective utilization, classified catalogued has been divided by scholars of cataloguing into three separate sequences, namely; (i) Classified or main sequence (ii) Alphabetical author-title sequence (iii) Alphabetical subject index sequence.
Classified or Main Sequence: This is the basic entry under the classified catalogue which contains detailed information (description) about a given library material but whose heading is neither author, title nor alphabetical subject index but, notational symbols of a classification scheme been adopted in a given library. In fact, all the two other sequences contained only brief description indicating appropriate call numbers for cross references (direction) to the main sequence.
The classification number plus the first three letters of author surname (known as call number/mark) will stand as the heading of an entry while other descriptions will follow. An example of the main sequence of the classified catalogue is below: 020.9 SALMAN, Abdulsalam Abiodun From Papyrus to machine-Readable: A survey of the History of Libraries/ By Abdulsalam Abiodun Salman.-Osogbo: Positive Impact Communications, 2006. Viii, 78p.:iII.: photos ISBN 978-070-125-7

020.9 SALMAN, Abdulsalam Abiodun From Papyrus to machine-Readable: A survey of the History of Libraries/ By Abdulsalam Abiodun Salman.-Osogbo: Positive Impact Communications, 2006. Viii, 78p.:iII.: photos ISBN 978-070-125-7

Alphabetical author-title sequence: It is a sequence or entry that is meant to facilitate the use of the main sequence of the classified catalogue discussed above. It is glaring that not all users can exploit the main classified catalogue, directly due to their inability to understand the order of classification scheme. A guiding or cross reference approach is thus, provided like the author-title sequence. This indicates that a user will first approach the author-title sequence catalogue and later be directed to the main classified catalogue through the call number provided. In other words, the author-title sequence is a stepping stone or direction to the main sequence of the classified catalogue. Both the author and title entries are interfiled alphabetically in the same cabinet with the inclusion of class mark in such entries. It should however, be noted that those entries do not contain detailed descriptions like the case of the classified catalogue main sequence. For example:

371.34 ISSA, Abdulwahab Olanrewaju
Practical Guides to project writing for students in Polytechnics, Colleges and Universities.

371.34 ISSA, Abdulwahab Olanrewaju
Practical Guides to project writing for students in Polytechnics, Colleges and Universities.

371.34 PRACTICAL GUIDES to Project Writing for Students
in Polytechnics, Colleges and Universities. ISSA, Abdulwahab Olanrewaju Practical Guides to Project Writing for Students in Polytechnics, Colleges and Universities.

371.34 PRACTICAL GUIDES to Project Writing for Students
in Polytechnics, Colleges and Universities. ISSA, Abdulwahab Olanrewaju Practical Guides to Project Writing for Students in Polytechnics, Colleges and Universities.

The above examples show that users who can exploit the author or title approach in the catalogue are provided with brief description of the needed book. However, through the call number 371.34 ISS. the main sequence of the classified catalogue can be approached by users for detailed information about that given book.
Alphabetical Subject Index Sequence: This is another approach to the use of the main classified catalogued. It involves a subject heading technique where the class mark equivalent has been indicated in order to guide users to the main sequence for detailed information. Needham (1991) observed that class numbers are meaningless to most users of the classified catalogue and therefore an index of subjects is required so that terms/headings in natural language are converted into class numbers. For example:
Science 500
Nervous system: Anatomy: Domestics animals 636.08918
Nervous system: Anatomy: Medicine 611.8
Nervous system: Anatomy: Vertebrates 596.1
Nervous system: Diseases: 616.8
Nervous system: Diseases: Children 618.92
Nervous system: Physiology: Infant 612.65
Nervous system: Surgery: 617.48
Poetry: English literature 821
Poetry: French literature 841
Poetry: Spanish literature 861
Railways: Engineering 625.1
Railways: Engineering: Economics 338.476351
Railways: Transport operations 656
MERITS OF CLASSIFIED CATALOGUE There are multifarious merits or advantages that can be derived from classified catalogue if adopted in libraries. Some of its benefits are adumbrated as follows: (a) Classified catalogue uses the advantages of classification scheme, particular by the adoption of general to specific numbers. E.g.000-099, 200-299, 300-399 (for DDC scheme). (b) It promotes shelf order and thus enhances research enquires of users. (c) It is convenient for compiling subject lists. (d) Classified catalogue also facilitates reference to other works in the catalogue especially at the same class number. (e) It enhances stock-taking in the library (f) It is easier and more mechanical to compile than dictionary catalogue (g) Through the use of classified catalogue shelf list is not necessary and consequently promoting economy of catalogue. (h) Many published bibliographies and abstracts used classified order in the presentation and organization of listed works.
SHELF LIST CATALOGUE This has been described by Kumar and Kumar (1991) as ‘‘a catalogue or list of books of a given library in the order in which they stand on the shelves’’. In other words, it is a picture of the available collection in form of list and their order of position on the shelves for easy identification. The shelf list catalogue is kept in the cataloguing department and it contains the master cards of all catalogue entries made in the library. In addition to other bibliographic information contained in the public catalogue, the shelf list catalogue entry carries the accession numbers of all the copies of each book title in the library. Unlike the public catalogue, the shelf list has no multiple entries. Each item in the library has a single entry in the shelf list. It is imperative to know that arrangement of entries in the shelf list is in a classified rather than alphabetical order (Nwalo, 2003). The shelf list is very important as it shows at a glance all titles, number of copies and arrangement of materials on the shelves. If any material is weeded from the library, the entry in the shelf list catalogue is withdrawn. In addition, shelf list is also important as it aids the librarian in stocktaking. Stocktaking is necessary to find out which materials are missing from the library. In the event of a fire outbreak in the library, everything possible is done to protect the shelf list. It is only with the help of the shelf list that the materials lost in the inferno can be evaluated.
STOCK TAKING This is one of the library functions meant to assess the availability of its collection within a certain period. It is a technique of identifying or ascertaining the materials that are missing from the library at an interval. This activity is essential as it helps to correct the entries based on the available collection. For instance, a user who is familiar with the use of catalogue can identify an item in the catalogue while the actual book needed might have been stolen. In this situation, such user wastes much of his/her time searching for an item which is not available in the library. Thus, stock taking will encourage the up to datedness of the catalogue while the entries of unavailable items can be withdrawn temporarily or the term ‘‘missing’’ may be written on them.
COMPUTER APPLICATION The high rate of information generation resulting to “information explosion” has virtually made it impossible for users to have access to all the available information especially through manual method. This is to stress that the abundance of this information has continued to create problems of accessibility of needed information to users. It implies that information at the doorstep of users is beyond their needs and this, in turn make it difficult to retrieve the appropriate information conventionally. Efforts made to address this problem resulted to the invention of information technology as a way of enhancing information gathering, preservation, organization and retrieval. Marghalani (1997) described information technology as a term which comprises the notion of the application of technologies to information handling (generation, storage, processing, retrieval, dissemination etc.) Today, the world has become a global village through the adoption of IT which makes it possible for an information seeker to be abreast of needed information within his/her immediate environment and even beyond at a short time. Specifically, IT application as noted by Nwalo (2000) has brought about tremendous improvement in library and information services worldwide. He further acknowledged that IT has an added advantage of making possible more services for both the management and the users of the information service institutions which would otherwise not have been possible under manual operations. Some of the components of information technology include; computer, telecommunication, telex, internet, facsimile, etc. The conversion of the manual routines in the library and particularly the cataloguing jobs are most appropriate with the application of computer technology. This is to say that computer-based library systems can be adopted to carry out all the cataloguing activities and which can also be convenient to (a) provide a better service at lesser or no great a cost and (b) give added benefits at lesser cost. Tedd (1984) as quoted by Nwalo (2003) highlighted the followings as the most essential characteristics of a computer-based cataloguing system:
(i) Online access to a database of potentially needed bibliographic records,
(ii) A high percentage of the required records to be already available in the database so that original cataloguing is minimized,
(iii) A consistently high quality of bibliographic records in the database and conformity with the latest cataloguing and classification codes,
(iv) Online authority control
(v) Ability to do original cataloguing online when necessary and to assist the process with appropriate prompts, etc.
(vi) Ability for the records in the catalogue to be accessed in a variety of ways and in an appropriate physical form. In this modern society, verification of cataloguing information from library collection, provision of essential entries, filing of such entries in the catalogue cabinet and having access to the public catalogue by users which are manually undertaken are now best discharged with the help of computer. For instance, searching for needed books in the catalogue is presently facilitated through the Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC). OPAC according to Nwalo, allows the user at the terminal to search the database in order to see if the library holds a particular work (book), to know its location and to find out the present status of the book (whether on loan, repairs or reserved, etc).
Advantages of computer application Computer and other forms of technologies according to Cochrane (1992) have the following benefits to offer to the library and particularly cataloguing activities:
(i) Provide speedy and easy access to information,
(ii) Allow easy integration of various activities,
(iii) Facilitate cooperation and the formation of library networks,
(iv) Provide remote access to users,
(v) Helps to avoid duplication of entries within the library and between libraries in a network,
(vi) Provide more up to date information
(vii) Increase efficiency on the jobs rendered
(viii) Provide marketing opportunity of its services. Without any doubt, the huge expenses devoted to establish a computer-based library is not a waste but a means towards achieving effective services.
Afolabi, S. M. (1986). The Cataloguing Manual for Library Science Students. Zaria Ahmadu Bello University.
American Library Association (1968). ALA Rules for Filling Catalogue Cards, 2nd edition. Chicago: ALA.
Gorman, M. and Winkler, P. M. (1978). Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules. London: The Library Association.
Kumar, G. and Kumar, K. (1981). Theory of Cataloguing. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House Ltd.
Needham, C. D. (1991). Organizing Knowledge in Libraries. London: Andre Deutsh.
Nwalo, K.I.N. (2003). Fundamentals of Library Practice. Ibadan: Stirling Horden Publishers Ltd.
Obi, D. S. (1977). A Manual for School Libraries on Small Budgets. Oxford University Press.

References: 4. Explanatory reference The most prominent or basic types of cross references as noted by Bloomberg (1997) are the first two i.e A survey of the History of Libraries/ By Abdulsalam Abiodun Salman.-Osogbo: Positive Impact Communications, 2006. By Abdulsalam Abiodun Salman.-Osogbo: Positive Impact Communications, 2006.

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