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Organization Behaviour

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Type of reinforcement:
Definition:
Reinforcement theory looks at the relationship between behavior and its consequences. It focuses on changing or modifying the employees’ on-the-job behavior through the appropriate use of immediate rewards and punishments.

Reinforcement tool:

Behavior modification is the set of techniques by which reinforcement theory is used to modify human behavior. The basic assumption underlying behavior modification is the law of effect, which states that behavior that is positively reinforced tends to be repeated, and behavior that is not reinforced tends to be inhibited. Reinforcement is defined as anything that causes a certain behavior to be repeated or inhibited.

Types of reinforcement:

Positive reinforcement:
Adv: Positive reinforcement builds confidence and helps employees have a more pleasurable experience at work while avoiding the negative side effects associated with punishment or negative reinforcement, such as frustration, anger, anxiety and depression.
Disadv: Too much positive reinforcement can lead to fatigue or praise overload, Perone states, which can diminish the results. Positive enforcement that is administered haphazardly can also cause problems, Perone states, as workers receive the same signals no matter what they do, which reduces the power of the signals.

What can manager do?
Two factor theory:

The two factor theory states that there are certain factors in the workplace that cause job satisfaction, while a separate set of factors cause dissatisfaction, by Herzberg.

Hygiene factors involves the presence or absence of job dissatisfies, such as …..
However, good hygiene factors simply remove the dissatisfaction; they don’t in themselves cause people to become highly satisfied and motivated in their work.

Motivators are high level needs, which include achievement …….
When motivators are absent, workers are neutral towards work, but when motivators are present, workers are highly motivated and satisfied.

Empowerment program and compensation program:
The newest trend in motivation is empowerment, the delegation of power or authority to employees in an organization. Increasing employee power heightens motivation for task accomplishment because people improve their own effectiveness, choosing how to do a task and using their creativity. Most people come into an organization with the desire to do a good job, and empowerment releases the motivation that is already there.
Empowering employees means giving them four elements that enable them to act more freely to accomplish their jobs: 1. Employees receive information about company performance.
In this organization, no information is secret. All employees have access to all financial information, including executive salaries. 2. Employees have knowledge and skills to contribute to company goals.
Organizations use training programmers to help employees acquire the knowledge and skills they need to contribute to organizational performance.

3. Employees have the power to make substance decisions. Workers have authority to directly influence work procedures and organizational performance, often through quality circles or self-directed work team. E.g. HP has system that let salespeople worked out of their homes and set their own schedules. They can share information with colleagues and access databases.
4.
Employees are rewarded based on company performance.
Organizations that empower workers often reward them based on the results shown in the organization’s bottom line.

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