ORGANISM’S PHYSIOLOGY MICHAEL A DENKYIRAH
BIO/101-PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY
DECEMBER 8TH 2013.
Organism Physiology is the method in which many diverse living organisms are considered to have developed from earlier forms during the history of the earth that can be defined as Evolution. Several organisms have evolved as a result of environmental changes within their habitats. Example is a diagram of a whale and details about how the whale has evolved physiologically and has become adapted to fit the environment. Kingdom: Animalia, Phylum: Cordata, Class: Mammalia, Order: Cetacea, Sub-order: Odontoceti, Family: Delphinidae, Genus: Orcinus, Species: Orca. Whales occupy all oceans and major seas, even some are in larger river systems. They are very large animals. They can grow up to 100 ft. or more in length. They can weigh up to 200 tons or more. Whales live in families called pods. These pods vary in numbers and consist of family members and family friends. Whales live in these families their whole life. Group living is safer when other whales or sharks attack. It also makes it easier to find food. Whales are always migrating. They travel to find food, breed and have young. Whales do not have eyelids. They rely on thick oily tears to protect their eyes. Whales hear from little holes behind their eyes. They talk to each other by making high pitched sounds like whistles, clicks, squeaks, rattles, and groans. Whales inhabit all oceans and the seven seas; some also inhabit larger river systems. They are extremely social organism and use communication for the function of hunting, defense, and reproduction. In general a dolphins live pods of up to a dozen individuals. Dolphin pods can emerge temporally forming a super pod the emerging pods may exceed thousands of dolphins. Attachments in pods are not set; interchange is regular. On the other hand, whales can generate great social bonds; they will remain with wounded or individuals in poor health, even assisting other whales to breathe by bringing them to the surface if required. Whales are widely classed as predators, but their food ranges from microscopic plankton to very large fish. Males are called bulls; females, cows. The young are called calves. Because of their environment, whales are conscious breathers: they decide when to breathe. All mammals sleep, including whales, but they cannot afford to fall into an unconscious state for too long, since they need to be conscious in order to breathe. Whales also communicate with each other using lyrical sounds. Being so large and powerful these sounds are also extremely loud depending on the species. The most dangerous predator for the whale is mankind and climate change. Man slaughters whales for their meat, fat, and for being in the same location where they fish. There studies at this time being done to evaluate the influence of pollution in the water and the effects on whales. Whales are threatened by climate change and global warming. As the Antartic Ocean warms, krill populations, that are the main food source of some species of whales, reduce dramatically, being replaced by jelly like salps. . Whales give birth to live young, and the mother nurses the calf with her milk and provides care. The calf is nursed by the mother for one and one half years to three years and a mother will stay with her young three to eight years. Whales are thought to live about 40-80years. Whales vary basis of their ecosystem and what is necessary for them to survive in their ecosystem (Getten, 2006). All whales, dolphins, and porpoises species are related. Fossil data has been discovered from the early Eocene epoch that point toward information that whales were already aquatic...
References: Brakes, P., & Simmonds, M. P. (2011). Whales and dolphins: Cognition, culture, conservation and human perceptions. London, UK: Earthscan.
Getten, M. J. (2006). Communicating with orcas: The whales ' perspective. Charlottesville, VA: Hampton Roads Pub. Co.
Whales and Dolphins Website : Whales. (2011, March 11). Retrieved December 7, 2013, from http://dolphins-and-whales.zoomshare.com/11.html
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