QUESTION :What are the main foundations of Organization Development? What are the stages of OD as suggested by Kurt Lewin and subsequently modified by Lippitt, Watson &Westley?
1) FOUNDATION OF OD
(a) The field of OD rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. These beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation.
(b) Values have always been an integral part of OD package. OD values and assumption developed from research and theory, by behavioral scientist and from the experiences and observations of practicing managers. OD values tend to be humanistic, optimistic and democratic.
(d) The knowledge base of OD is extensive and is constantly being upgraded. The most important concept on which OD is constructed is as follows:
i) Model & theories of planned change : Organization development is directed at bringing about planned change to increase an organization's effectiveness, generally initiated and implemented by managers, often with the help of an OD practitioner either from inside or outside of the organization. Organizations can use planned change to solve problems, to learn from experience, to reframe shared perceptions, to adapt to external environmental changes, to improve performance, and to influence future changes. The theories describe the different stages through which planned change may be effected in organizations and explain the process of applying OD methods to help organization members manage change.
(ii) System theory: The organization is an open system, which interacts with the environment and is continually adapting and improving. The organization influences and is influenced by the environment in which it operates. If an organization is to be effective it must pay attention to the external environment, and take steps to adjust itself to accommodate the changes in order to remain relevant
(iii) Participation and...
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