An organisation is commonly defined as a group of people who work together in a consciously coordinated social unit for a shared purpose. Management refers to the activity of controlling and organizing people to accomplish its goals. In today’s increasingly global and competitive environment the effective management of people is even more important to the successful performance of the work organisations. Therefore, the managers need to understand the main influences on how people behave in an organisation setting. Mullins (2008, p.4) defined organisation behaviour (OB) as ‘the study and understanding of individual and group behaviour, and patterns of structure in order to help improve organisational performance and effectiveness’. It comprises a synthesis of a variety of different theories and approaches. Therefore, this essay opens by briefly explore a number of interrelated disciplined to the study of organisational behaviour, before examining the relevance of four main approach to the subject in today’s workplace. Finally, it discusses the purpose of organisations.
II. Interrelated discipline to the study of organisational behaviour
The study of behaviour can be viewed in terms of three main disciplines – psychology, sociology and anthropology. The contribution of all three disciplines has played an important role to studying organisational behaviour.
Psychology is the science and art of explaining mental processes and behaviour. The main focus of attention is on the individuals and explores such concepts as perception, motivation, perception and attitudes. It is arguable that McKenna considers psychology as the key discipline in studying organisational behaviour. There are five key areas in Psychology that can impact on organisations; these are: psychological psychology, cognitive psychology, development psychology, social psychology and personality psychology. Psychological aspects are useful to the practical applications such as