Organisational Behavior

Powerful Essays
Topics: Management
Chapter 13 - Improving the organization and management of extension
M. W. Waldron, J. Vsanthakumar, and S. Arulraj
Mark W. Waldron is a Professor of Rural Extension Studies, University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada; J. Vsanthakumar is a Professor of Agricultural Extension, Annamalai University, India; and S. Arulraj is a Senior Scientist, Agricultural Extension, Sugarcane Breeding Institute, India.
The authors acknowledge the assistance of Michael Rzeznik, Ph.D. student in Rural Studies, University of Guelph, in preparing this chapter.
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Planning
Decision making
Organizing
Staffing
Directing
Coordinating
Reporting
Budgeting
Systems theory
Contingency theory
Conclusion
References
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Managing people effectively in extension programmes is a skill that requires constant planning and development. An extension programme manager can be defined as the person who is vested with formal authority over an organization or one of its sub units. He or she has status that leads to various interpersonal relations, and from this comes access to information. Information, in turn, enables the manager to devise strategies, make decisions, and implement action (Mintzberg, 1988). Management is concerned with the optimum attainment of organizational goals and objectives with and through other people. Extension management organizations are characterized by many strategies, wide spans of control, democracy, and autonomy. Their management practices cannot be reduced to one standard set of operating guidelines that will work for all organizations continually. However, all managers of professional organizations face the same challenge: to manage one 's time, objectives, and resources in order to accomplish tasks and implement ideas (Waldron, 1994).
Managers of extension programmes are painfully aware of the need for revision and development of the new skill sets held by today 's high performers. If change is not handled correctly, it can be more devastating then ever



References: Bonoma, T, & Slevin, D. P. (1978). Executive survival manual. Boston: CBI Publishing Company. Buford, J. A., Jr., & Bedian, A. G. (1988). Management in extension. Alabama: Auburn University Press, p. 263. Chambers, R. (1993). Challenging the profession - Frontiers for rural development. London: Intermediate Technology Publications, p. 67. Cherrington, D. J. (1989). Organizational behavior: The management of individual and organizational performance. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Claar, J. B., & Bentz, R. P. (1984). Organizational design and extension administration. In B. E. Swanson (Ed.), Agricultural extension: A reference manual. Rome: FAO. Clark, R.C. (1973). Basic concepts and theories of administration and supervision (revised edition). Madison: Department of Agricultural and Extension Education, University of Wisconsin at Madison. Covey, S. R. (1992). The 7 habits of highly effective people. Toronto: Simon and Schuster, p. 29. Drucker, P. R (1966). The Effective executive. New York: Harper & Row. Drucker, P. F. (1977). People and performance. New York: Harper 's College Press. Elkins, A. (1980). Management structures, functions, and practices. Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, p. 539. Evans, J. P., & Dahl, D. T. (1984). Organizing for extension communication. In B. E. Swanson (Ed.), Agricultural extension: A reference manual. Rome: FAO. Flemming, P. (1989). Strategic planning: Fact sheet. Ontario: Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Rural Organizations and Services Branch. Gulick, L., & Urwick, L. (1959). Papers on the science of administration in extension. Madison: National Agricultural Extension Center for Advanced Study, University of Wisconsin at Madison. Ivanevich, J. M., Donnelly, J. H., Jr., & Gibson, J. L. (1980). Managing for performance. Georgetown, Ontario: Irwin Dorsey. Koontz, H., & O 'Donnel, C. (1978). Essentials of management. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill, p. 104-105. Marshall, P. (1992). Introduction to the management process. In Managing people at work. Guelph: University of Guelph Press. Massie, J. L. (1979). Essentials of management. New Delhi: Prentice-Hall. McGregor, D. (1960). The human side of enterprise. New York: McGraw-Hill. Mintzberg. H. (1973). The nature

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