A number of people whose activities have been set, coordinated and led by their members in order to the attainment of specific objectives or goals is used as defining an organization (Schein 1970). “Theory means here logic and metaphysics” (Timo and Gasparski, 1993, p.3). Different people may have different views on the operations within the organization. Therefore, organization theory is invented and influences what goes on in the organization. Moreover, from the organization theory, it shows variety of perspectives that organization theorists use to study the phenomenon of interest (McAuley, Duberly and Johnson 2007)¹.
In the organization theory, there are four different types of multi-perspective which are Modernism, Critical Theory, Symbolic Interpretive and Postmodernism. Thus, this essay will explain about Modernism and Critical Theory out of the four perspectives. Framework
In understanding the nature of modernist organization theory, Michael Reed introduced two different metatheoretical terms which are ontology and epistemology (Reed, 1992). The modernist ontology is objectivism and the reality can be observes under see, touch, taste, hear and smell. For an instance, individual and organizations can be rational and structured based on people’s knowledge of it. Next, the modernist epistemology is positivism that the knowledge is discovered through the scientific measurements and test.
In the theoretical way, modernist organizational theory emphasizes on how to create a rational, stable and effective organization as ways of controlling to overcome problems under the ever-changing world (Hatch and Cunliffe 2006)¹. It’s all about the “truths” which govern the organizations. The “truths” can be power or rules within the organization and employees. For example, in order to assist the organization, employees may establish strategies on how to increase the firms to be more productive and efficient with the limited power. For the management...
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