Organic Chemistry

Topics: Alkane, Alkene, Functional group Pages: 5 (717 words) Published: October 18, 2013


Organic chemistry

Organic chemistry is one of the ‘branches’ of chemistry and is seen as distinct from other branches, such as inorganic and physical chemistry. It can be described as the chemistry living processes (often referred to as biochemistry) but extends beyond that. It focuses almost entirely on the chemistry of covalently bonded carbon molecules and as well as life processes, it includes the chemistry of other types of compounds, including plastics, petrochemicals, drugs and paint.

The early chemists didn’t think they would ever be able to make the sort of chemicals involved in living processes but they were wrong. For example, today very complex chemicals used in the manufacture of drugs can be made and then their structures modified to achieve improvements in their effectiveness. An understanding of organic chemistry can be developed from knowledge of the structure of a carbon atom and how it can combine with other carbon atoms by forming covalent bonds.

Alkanes
Alkanes are hydrocarbons, which are molecules that contain only carbon and hydrogen.

They are made up of carbon atoms linked together by only single covalent bonds and are known as saturated hydrocarbons. Many alkanes are obtained from crude oil by fractional distillation. The smallest alkanes are used extensively as fuels.

Apart from burning, however, they are remarkably unreactive.

Alkane
Methane
Ethane

Propane
Butane
Pentane
Alkene
Ethene

Propene
Butene
Pentene
Alkane
Methane
Ethane

Propane

Molecular
formula
CH4
C2H6
C3H8
C4H10
C5H12
Molecular
formula
C2H4
C3H6
C4H8
C5H10
Molecular
formula
CH3OH
C2H5OH
C3H7OH

Display formula

Display formula

Display formula

Boiling
point
(C)

-162
-89
-42
0
36Boiling
point
(C)

-104
-48
-6
30Boiling
point
(C)

65
78
97
State at room temperature and pressure
Gas
Gas
Gas
Gas
LiquidAlkene
In organic chemistry, an alkene, olefin, or olefine is an unsaturated chemical compound containing at least one carbon–carbon double bond. The simplest acyclic alkenes, with only one double bond and no other functional groups, known as mono-enes, form a homologous series of hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n. They have two hydrogen atoms less than the corresponding alkane (with the same number of carbon atoms).

The simplest alkene is ethylene (C2H4), which has the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) name ethene. In the petrochemical industry alkenes are often called olefins. For bridged alkenes, the Bredt's rule states that a double bond cannot be placed at the bridgehead of a bridged ring system, unless the rings are large enough (8 or more atoms). Aromatic compounds are often drawn as cyclic alkenes, but their structure and properties are different and they are not considered to be alkenes.

State at room temperature and pressure
Gas
Gas
Gas
Liquid
Homologous series
In chemistry, a homologous series is a series of compounds with a similar general formula, usually varying by a single parameter such as the length of a carbon chain. Examples of such series are the straight-chained alkanes (paraffins), and some of their derivatives (such as the primary alcohols, aldehydes, and (mono)carboxylic acids). The single-ring unbranched cycloalkanes form another such series.

Compounds within a homologous series typically have a fixed set of functional groups that gives them similar chemical and physical properties. (For example, the series of primary straight-chained alcohols has an hydroxyl at the end of the carbon chain.) These properties typically change gradually along the series, and the changes can often be explained by mere differences in molecular size and mass.

The name "homologous series" is also often used for any collection of compounds that have similar structures or include the same functional group, such as the general alkanes (straight and branched), the alkenes...
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