Organic Chem

Topics: Carbon, Oxygen, Petroleum Pages: 56 (10514 words) Published: February 16, 2014
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ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

OIL and its
many useful
PRODUCTS
The origin of oil







Crude oil is formed from organic material of the remains of plant and animal organisms that lived millions of years ago. These remains form sediments eg at the bottom of seas, and become buried under layers of sedimentary rock. They decay, without air (oxygen), under the action of heat and pressure to form crude oil over millions of years.

It is a fossil fuel because it is formed from once living organisms and the Sun is the original source of energy. It is a non-renewable and finite (limited reserves) energy resource because it takes millions of years to form and we burn it faster than its is formed! It is also known as a finite energy resource because it will eventually run out! We do not have unlimited oil reserves! Coal and natural gas (mainly methane CH4 and often found with oil) are also non-renewable fossil fuels formed from the remains of plants or animals.

When the fossil fuels are burned the 'carbon', as carbon dioxide, is returned to the living environment, gets used up in photosynthesis, the plant material decays or is eaten by animals, so completing the carbon cycle.

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The SEPARATION of the crude oil
mixture into fractions and the USES of
these fractions
A fraction is a mixture of a restricted boiling point range of molecules, they have a similar number of carbon atoms and
physical properties. The uses of the fractions depend on their physical and chemical properties.

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Hydrocarbon molecules are
only made of a chemical
combination of carbon and
hydrogen atoms.
They are compounds
because they consist of
atoms of atleast two
different elements.






THE FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF CRUDE
OIL

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Crude oil is a complex mixture of mainly hydrocarbon
compound molecules. A mixture consists of two or more
elements or compounds which are not chemically
combined. The chemical properties of each substance in the
mixture is unchanged.
This means crude oil can be separated by physical methods, in this case fractional distillation, because they have different boiling and condensation points.
The most volatile fraction, ie with the lowest boiling point, boils or evaporates off first and goes to the top of the column.
The rest separate out according to their boiling point so that the highest boiling fraction, ie the less volatile with higher
boiling points, tend to condense more easily lower down
the column.
The bigger the molecule, the greater the intermolecular forces, so the higher the boiling point. Chemical bonds are not broken in the process, only the intermolecular force of attraction. names
C atoms boiling
of
in the
range
fractions molecule in oC

USES of the fraction
methane gas fuel, C3-4
easily liquefied, portable
energy source bottled gas
for cooking (butane), higher
pressure cylinders (propane)

Fuel Gas,
LPG,
Refinery
Gas

1 to 4

-160 to
20oC

Gasoline,
Petrol

5 to 11

20 to
60oC

easily vaporised, highly
flammable, easily ignited, car
fuel

Naphtha

7 to 13

60 to
180oC

no good as a fuel, but valuable
source of organic molecules to
make other things, cracked to
make more petrol and alkenes

Paraffin,
Kerosene

10 to 16

120 to
240oC

less flammable than petrol,
domestic heater fuel, jet fuel

Diesel oil,
Gas oil

15 to 25

220 to
250oC

Car and larger vehicle fuel

Fuel and
lubricating
20 to 70
Oils and
Waxes

Bitumen

over 70

not so easily evaporated, not as
flammable, safe to store for
250 to central heating oil, quite viscous
350oC
(sticky) and can also be used
for lubricating oils, clear waxes
and polishes
forms a thick, black, tough and
resistant adhesive on cooling,
over
used as waterproofing material
o
350 C
and to sticks rock chips on roofs
or road surfaces

2

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