Organic Chem

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ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

OIL and its many useful
PRODUCTS
The origin of oil







Crude oil is formed from organic material of the remains of plant and animal organisms that lived millions of years ago. These remains form sediments eg at the bottom of seas, and become buried under layers of sedimentary rock. They decay, without air (oxygen), under the action of heat and pressure to form crude oil over millions of years.
It is a fossil fuel because it is formed from once living organisms and the Sun is the original source of energy. It is a non-renewable and finite (limited reserves) energy resource because it takes millions of years to form and we burn it faster than its is formed! It is also known as a finite energy resource because it will eventually run out! We do not have unlimited oil reserves!
Coal and natural gas (mainly methane CH4 and often found with oil) are also non-renewable fossil fuels formed from the remains of plants or animals.
When the fossil fuels are burned the 'carbon', as carbon dioxide, is returned to the living environment, gets used up in photosynthesis, the plant material decays or is eaten by animals, so completing the carbon cycle.

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The SEPARATION of the crude oil mixture into fractions and the USES of these fractions
A fraction is a mixture of a restricted boiling point range of molecules, they have a similar number of carbon atoms and physical properties. The uses of the fractions depend on their physical and chemical properties.

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Hydrocarbon molecules are only made of a chemical combination of carbon and hydrogen atoms.
They are compounds because they consist of atoms of atleast two different elements.






THE FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF CRUDE
OIL

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Crude oil is a complex mixture of mainly hydrocarbon compound molecules. A mixture consists of two or more elements or compounds which are not

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