organic

Topics: Carboxylic acid, Acetic acid, Ester Pages: 7 (487 words) Published: November 14, 2014


ANALYTICAL AND ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

LECTURER’S NAME : DR.RAPIDAH OTHMAN
COD SUBJECT : NKB 10103
NAME : NUR NADIRAH BINTI BAHARUDEAN
ID NUMBER : 55220114255
CHAPTER : ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

CONTENTS

1,4-BENZENEDICARBOXYLIC ACID

Introduction
The organic compound’s group that I’ve chosen in this assignment is 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid. 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid and also called as Terephthalic acid containing the carboxyl group and benzene group. Sometimes it simply referred to as a acid group.

Diagram 1.1 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid

Summarized ways the carboxylic acid group is shown :
CO2H or --- COOH
( Unknown ,2013, page 185)

Physicals and Chemical Properties of 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid

Chemical Properties
Physical Properties
Stability
Stable under ordinary conditions
Physical state
white crystalline powder
Density
1.522 g/cm³
Melting point
300 C
Acidity (pKa)
2.89, 5.51
Boiling point
402 C (sublimes)

Specific gravity
1.58

Molecular weight
194.1840

Formula
C10H10O4

Solubility in water
Insoluble

(http://www.chemicalland21.com/petrochemical/PTA.htm)

The Synthesis of 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid

Amoco Process

In the Amoco process, terephthalic acid is produced by oxidation of p-xylene by oxygen in air: Diagram 3.1

The process uses cobalt-manganese-bromide catalyst. The bromide source can be NaBr, HBr or tetrabromoethane where bromine functions as a regenerative source of free radicals. In this process, acetic acid is the solvent and oxygen from compressed air is the oxidant. The combination of bromine and acetic acid is found to be highly corrosive and hence the equipment is lined with titanium.

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terephthalic_acid)

Cooxidation

The cooxidation technique uses auxiliary substance which is simultaneously oxidized to H2O2 which increase the activity of the oxidation catalyst.

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terephthalic_acid)

Multistage oxidation

This method is developed to reduce concentration of 4-formyl benzoic acid content in final product Terephthalic acid (TPA) to 200-300 ppm without separate purification step. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terephthalic_acid)

The Application of 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid in Industry

Polyester fibers based on PTA provide easy fabric care, both alone and in blends with natural and other synthetic fibers. Polyester films are used widely in audio and video recording tapes, data storage tapes, photographic films,and other sheet material requiring both dimensional stability and toughness. Terephthalic acid is also used in the paint as a carrier.

It is used in the pharmaceutical industry as a raw material for certain drugs.

In addition to these end uses, Terephthalic acid based polyesters and polyamides are also used in hot melt adhesives.

PTA is an important raw material for lower molecular weight saturated polyesters for powder and water-soluble coatings.

Terephthalic acid has been popularized as a component for the synthesis of metal-organic frameworks.

Terephthalic acid is used as a filler in some military smoke grenades

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terephthalic_acid)

REFERENCES

Unknown . 2013 . “Chemistry KFP02205”. page 185

Wikipedia . (15 September 2014 at 16:17) . Terephthalic acid. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terephthalic_acid Chemicalland21 . Retrieved from http://www.chemicalland21.com/petrochemical/PTA.htm NIST, National Institute of Standards and Technology . 2011...

References: Unknown . 2013 . “Chemistry KFP02205”. page 185
Wikipedia . (15 September 2014 at 16:17) . Terephthalic acid. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terephthalic_acid
Chemicalland21 . Retrieved from http://www.chemicalland21.com/petrochemical/PTA.htm
NIST, National Institute of Standards and Technology . 2011 . Retrieved from http://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?ID=C120616&Mask=FFF
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