"All theories of organisation and management are based on implicit images or metaphors that persuade us to see, understand, and imagine situations in partial ways. Metaphors create insight. But they also distort. They have strengths. But they also have limitations. In creating ways of seeing, they create ways of not seeing. Hence there can be no single theory or metaphor that gives an all-purpose point of view. There can be no 'correct theory' for structuring everything we do." Gareth Morgan.
Metaphors create a method of thinking; it compares items of deferent characteristic showing similarities but not differences. Metaphors can be numerous, teacher as metaphor, leader as metaphor, and software as metaphor. Two major types of metaphors are machine and mind
A) Organisation as a machine
Organisations as machine have strict processes and chains of command with a hierarchical, top down style of management. Organisation has number of departments which does specific type of functions, defined jobs and responsibilities. Management style is of classical style that promotes rational systems carried out in as efficient way as possible. This style can be seen in many public sector organisations such as military, health and education authorities. The necessity for this style of organisation can be due to the size of the organisations and the work they undertake. They are often accountable to the general public and therefore have to follow strict procedures which are recorded for public scrutiny. In the case of a military organisation, an active unit needs to know and understand exactly the chain of command when in action as there can be no confusion. Example: Mechanical Contracting & Services Co; - It has clear hierarchical structures where Managing Director is the overall controller at the top of the hierarchy, by controlling all head of departments and the departments function under the control of each head of the department and the hierarchy is...
References: a) Gareth Morgan, Images of Organisation, Sage Publications, India. 1997
b) Robert Kreitner and Angelo Kinicki, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth edition, 2009
c) Ralph D. Stacey, Strategic Management and Organisational Dynamics, 3rd edition, 2000
d) Web-site materials references.
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