SCIENCE INVESTIGATORY PROJECT
(ENERGY DERIVED FROM ORANGES)
Submitted By: GROUP 4
I – Alpha Centauri
Leader: Jake Russell S. Arevalo
Iris A. Gervacio
Shara Lyn R. Castrillo
Mary Claire A. Malata
Ivhan S. Sancho
Submitted To: Teacher Hazel F. Solis
TABLE OF CONTENTS
III. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
V. FINISHED PRODUCT
The aim of this study is to demonstrate how batteries work. Batteries may seem a little magical, but they are not. A battery actually is just a container of chemicals that react together to produce a flow of electrons, which is what an electrical current really is. A battery has two terminals, one positive and one negative. They are usually marked by plus and minus signs, so you can tell which is which. After the battery is assembled, a multimeter / voltmeter can be used to check the generated voltage. In order for a more visible effect to be produced, a few orange cells connected in series can be used to power a standard LED (Light Emitting Diode). Flashlight bulbs are generally not used because the orange battery cannot produce the amount of current required to light such bulbs. You will learn that the way the orange battery cells are made and connected with each other will determine if you can generate enough voltage and current to power a LED bulb. Batteries made with different electrode materials, like copper, nickel, or zinc might produce different voltages. Batteries with different electrode shapes or surface areas might have different internal resistances.
A battery is an electronic device that changes chemical energy into electrical energy. The chemical energy is sort of like the energy in the food we eat. When we want to run or jump, our bodies change the food (chemical energy) into motion (kinetic energy). Similarly, the chemicals in a battery are storing energy that can be released as a flow of electrons (electric energy). Batteries need three parts: a cathode (positive electrode), an anode (negative electrode), and an electrolyte (material to push the electrons). When making a fruit battery, the juiciness of the fruit or vegetable is the electrolyte, and the two metals inserted into the fruit are the electrodes. Which is the cathode and which is the anode depends on what pair of materials you are using. When two terminals of a voltage source (battery) are connected via a metal wire, the free electrons of the conductor drift toward the positive terminal, making them the electrical current carrier within the conductor. An Orange Battery is made by inserting two different metallic objects, for example a zinc nail and a copper coin, into an orange. The copper coin serves as the positive electrode or cathode and the zinc nail as the electron-producing negative electrode or anode. These two objects work as electrodes, causing an electrochemical reaction which generates a small potential difference.
III. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The first battery was developed by Alessandro Volta more than two centuries ago. Count Alessandro Volta an Italian physicist, known for his pioneering work in electricity, invented the voltaic battery in 1800. The voltaic pile was a forerunner of the electric battery. The electrical unit known as the volt was named in his honor. A voltaic battery is a battery consisting of a number of Primary cells with two or more unlike electrodes. Batteries produce electricity when two or more Primary or Secondary battery cells convert chemical energy to electrical energy. Fruits can be used as batteries. The acid in fruits reacts with water to create hydrogen. The hydrogen is in the form of ions. Ions are positively charged atoms that are missing electrons. This enables the...
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