OPEN AREA ZONATION OF MARINE LIFE

Topics: Intertidal zone, Littoral zone, Marine biology Pages: 15 (1716 words) Published: June 15, 2014
HORIZONTAL DISTRIBUTION OF MACROBENTHOS OF AN EXPOSED SANDY SHORE ATTHE LEXIS HOTEL, PORT DICKSON

Written Proposal Submitted in
Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the
Degree of Bachelor of Science (Hons.) Biology
In the Faculty of Applied Sciences
Universiti Teknologi MARA

DECEMBER 2013

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

1.0 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1Background Study
1.2Problem Statement
1.3Significance of the Study
1.4Objectives of the Study

2.0LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1Open shore
2.2Intertidal zone and its distribution
2.3Macrobenthos

3.0METHODOLOGY
3.1Material
3.1.1Raw material
3.1.2Chemicals
3.1.3Apparatus
3.2Methods
3.2.1Quadrate sampling method
3.2.2Samples collection
3.2.3Samples preservation
3.2.4Samples identification

CITED REFERENCES
GANTT CHART
STUDENT-SUPERVISOR MEETING FORM

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of Study
Port Dickson is situated about 32 km from Seremban and 20 km from Kuala Lumpur. The Lexis Hotel is located along the coastal stretch of Port Dickson near the town of Lukut in Negeri Sembilan. The resort is 3.5 km from Port Dickson.

The marine environment is considered as the largest ecosystem in the world and includes a vast array of habitats where more than 75% of known marine species are from coastal habitats. Among such habitats is the exposed sandy shore which houses macrobenthos living on the surface (epifauna) and in the soil (infauna) Exposed sandy beach is the most representative coastal habitat. (Jaramillo et al., 2001). Macro benthos is the organism that lives at the bottom of water column and is visible to the naked eye. Any marine fauna that have range of size at least 0.5 mm is classified as macro benthos. Macrobenthos in marine sediments play an important role in ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling, pollutant metabolism, dispersion, and burial and secondary production. (Musale & Desali, 2011)

1.2Problem Statement
There are many types of species that can be found on the tropical shores of coastal areas. However, there is paucity of studies on macrobenthic populations of disturbed intertidal shores in Malaysia. Most studies have been carried out in rivers, mangroves, mudflats and corals. Anthropogenic disturbance to natural habitats may disrupt species composition, population and community structure and food webs.

1.3 Significance of the Study
The study of species composition at the open area under the chalet might deliver a new knowledge to public on how organism will be affected by the human activity especially construction at that area. Other than that, this comparative study will give an idea of the biodiversity of the macro benthos at the Lexis Hotel shore.

1.4 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study are:
1. To determine the species richness of the macrobenthos (epi and infauna) on the exposed shore of the Lexis Hotel, Port Dickson. 2. To quantify the density of the macrobenthos (epi and infauna) on the exposed shore of the Lexis Hotel, Port Dickson. 3. To measure the community indices of the macrobenthos (epi and infauna) on the exposed shore of the Lexis Hotel, Port Dickson.

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1Open Shore
In Malaysia, the coastal zone includes 4.43 million hectares or about 13% of total land mass. (Shahrizaila, 1993) From a local perspective, it is significant to distinguish between exposed and sheltered shores. Battered by full force of ocean waves, exposed shores support very different organism from those found along sheltered shore on the inside of headlands or in coves and bays. The amount of wave energy to which intertidal organisms are exposed varies considerably from one section of coast to another and this variation affects the distribution and abundance of intertidal...

References: 1. Ismail, A. R., Ismail, A., Tan, S. G., & River, S. (2003). Species diversity of macrobenthic invertebrates in the Semenyih River, Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia, 26(2), 139–146.
3. Ingolfsson, A. (1996). The distribution of intertidal macrofauna on the coasts of Iceland in relation to temperature. Sarsia, 81(1), 29–44.
4. McLachlan, A. & Jaramillo, F. (1995) Zoonation on sandy beaches. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. A. Rev., 33:305-335.
5. Cecil, W., Olsen, K., & Shrimpton, S. (2004). Intertidal zone; does species diversity decreases with tidal height. 4741574 2004.
6. Schonbeck, M and T. A. Norton. (1980). Factors controlling the lower limits of fucoid algae on the shore. Journal Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 43:131-150.
7. Beach, W. P., Lagoon, C., Araruama, L. De, Silvat, E., Soares-gomest, A., Fernandest, F., & Abreut, C. M. De. (2005). Sandy beach macrobenthos assemblages at an hypersaline, (1).
8. Jaramillo, E., Contreras, H., Duarte, C., & Quijo, P. (2001). Relationships between community structure of the intertidal macroinfauna and sandy beach characteristics along the Chilean coast, 22(4).
9. Jackson, a. C., & McIlvenny, J. (2011). Coastal squeeze on rocky shores in northern Scotland and some possible ecological impacts. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 400(1-2), 314–321.
10. Molles, M.C. (2013). Ecology; Concepts and Applications. 6th ed.). McGraw Hill, New York.55-57pp.
11. Arruda, E. P. De, Amaral, A. C. Z., & Paulo, S. (2003). Spatial distribution of mollusks in the intertidal zone of distribution zone sheltered beaches in southeaster n of Brazil southeastern Brazil sheltered, 20(1964), 291–300.
12. Tagliapietra, D., & Sigovini, M. (2010). Benthic fauna : collection and identification of macrobenthic invertebrates, 88, 253–261.
13. Sharizaila, A. (1993). Coastal developments in Malaysia – scope , issues and challenges.
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