Online Voting System

Topics: Software development process, Unified Modeling Language, Waterfall model Pages: 42 (2967 words) Published: April 24, 2014

Chepter 1:
Study and Prepare documentation for different Software Process Models

A software process model is an abstract representation of process. It represents a description of process from some particular perspective. Models, by their very nature, are simplifications so a software process model is an abstraction of the actual process which is being described. Process models may include activities which are part of the software process, software products and the roles of people involved in software engineering.

Different Software Process Models are:
1. Waterfall model
2. Incremental model
3. RAD model
4. Prototype model
5. Spiral model

1. Waterfall model
The Waterfall Model was first Process Model to be introduced. It is also referred to as a linear-sequential life cycle model.  It is very simple to understand and use.  In a waterfall model, each phase must be completed fully before the next phase can begin.   At the end of each phase, a review takes place to determine if the project is on the right path and whether or not to continue or discard the project. In waterfall model phases do not overlap.

Diagram of Waterfall-model: 

Advantages of waterfall model:
Simple and easy to understand and use.
Easy to manage due to the rigidity of the model – each phase has specific deliverables and a review process. Phases are processed and completed one at a time.
Works well for smaller projects where requirements are very well understood.

Disadvantages of waterfall model:
Once an application is in the testing stage, it is very difficult to go back and change something that was not well-thought out in the concept stage. No working software is produced until late during the life cycle. High amounts of risk and uncertainty.

Not a good model for complex and object-oriented projects.
Poor model for long and ongoing projects.
Not suitable for the projects where requirements are at a moderate to high risk of changing.

When to use the waterfall model:
Requirements are very well known, clear and fixed.
Product definition is stable.
Technology is understood.
There are no ambiguous requirements
Ample resources with required expertise are available freely The project is short.

2. Incremental model
In incremental model the whole requirement is divided into various builds. Multiple development cycles take place here, making the life cycle a multi-waterfall cycle. Cycles are divided up into smaller, more easily managed modules.  Each module passes through the requirements, design, implementation and testing phases. A working version of software is produced during the first module, so you have working software early on during the software life cycle. Each subsequent release of the module adds function to the previous release. The process continues till the complete system is achieved. .

Diagram of Incremental model:

Advantages of Incremental model:
Generates working software quickly and early during the software life cycle. More flexible, less costly to change scope and requirements. Easier to test and debug during a smaller iteration.
Customer can respond to each built.
Lowers initial delivery cost.
Easier to manage risk because risky pieces are identified and handled during it’d iteration.

Disadvantages of Incremental model:
Needs good planning and design.
Needs a clear and complete definition of the whole system before it can be broken down and built incrementally. Total cost is higher than waterfall.

When to use the Incremental model:
Requirements of the complete system are clearly defined and understood. Major requirements must be defined; however, some details can evolve with time. There is a need to get a product to the market early.

A new technology is being used
Resources with needed skill set are not available
There are some high risk features and goals.

3. RAD model
RAD model is Rapid Application Development model. It is a type...
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