On Calvinism in Hawthorne's Scarlet Letter
Abstract: Hawthorne is a famous American writer. He wrote many excellent novels, which are popular among the readers at home and abroad. He lived in 19th century when Puritanism was still prevailing. And his family members were strict followers of Puritanism, who did lots of extreme misdeeds. This kind of family background had influenced Hawthorne a lot. These two factors both contributed to Hawthorne's writing style and themes. He believed that man was born with sin, and mankind was basically depraved. The doctrines of Calvinism have overlapped meanings with Puritanism, such as the concept of the original sin, atonement and so on. In a word, the big environment and the writer's background and experience both can account for a writer's themes and writing style. Key words: Calvinism; Puritanism; sin; Hawthorne; Young Goodman Brown; Hester; Dimmesdale; Pearl; Chillingworth
摘要：霍桑是美国的著名作家， 他写了很多优秀的作品，在国内外读者当中深受欢迎。霍桑主要生活在19世纪，在当时清教主义盛行，并且对人们有相当大的影响力，清教主义与加尔文主义有很多相近之处，比如对原罪论的理解，对救赎论的理解等等。因此，在某种程度上,加尔文主义可以近似地理解为清教主义。霍桑的祖先是严格奉行清教主义的著名人物，并且他们做了很多耸人听闻的迫害异教徒的事情。为此，霍桑感到很有罪恶感。他认为人性本恶，这种罪是与生俱来的。当时的社会大环境，个人的身世背景和经历，这两个因素都共同影响着一个作家的写作主题和风格。因此，我们在分析和解读一个作家的作品时，必须将这两个因素考虑在内，结合起来，来帮助我们的理解。 关键词：加尔文主义； 清教主义； 罪； 霍桑；年轻的布朗； 海丝特； 丁梅丝代尔； 珍珠； 奇灵沃丝；
Chapter 1 Introduction
With the publication of The Scarlet Letter in 1850, Nathaniel Hawthorne became famous as the greatest writer living then in the United States (as indeed some critics put it) and his reputation as a major American author has been on the increase ever since.  As his ancestors were famous followers of Puritanism, and also because of their notorious misdeeds, which were done out of their keen or rather mad enthusiasm for Puritanism, Hawthorne felt guilty for them. This kind of family background exerted a lot of influence on Hawthorne's character and writing style. Calvinism was the prevailing religious doctrine then in society. One of the most important...
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