Topics: Olympic Games, Summer Olympic Games, Winter Olympic Games Pages: 55 (14600 words) Published: February 11, 2014

Olympic Games
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This article is about the modern games. For the ancient Greek games, see Ancient Olympic Games. For the 1927 Our Gang short, see Olympic Games (film). "Olympics" redirects here. For other uses, see Olympic (disambiguation). Page semi-protected

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Olympic Games
The five Olympic Rings
Main topics

Host cities

Medal tables

Scandals and controversies
Special medals

Torch relays






The modern Olympic Games (French: Jeux olympiques[1]) are the leading international sporting event featuring summer and winter sports competitions wherein thousands of athletes variously compete. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating.[2] The Olympic Games are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, Greece, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1894. The IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority.

The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has caused several changes to the Olympic Games. Among these adjustments are creating the Winter Games for ice and winter sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with a disability, and the Youth Olympic Games for teenage athletes. The IOC has adapted to economic, political, and technological advancements, shifting the Olympics from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to allow participation of professional athletes. The growing importance of mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship and commercializing the Games. World wars caused the 1916, 1940, and 1944 Games' cancellings. Large boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Games.

The Olympic Movement comprises international sports federations (IFs), National Olympic Committees (NOCs), and organizing committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC chooses each Games' host city, and organizes and funds the Games according to the Olympic Charter. The IOC determined the olympic program, which comprises the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols; e.g., the Olympic flag, torch, and opening and closing ceremonies. Over 13,000 athletes compete at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games in 33 different sports and nearly 400 events. The first, second, and third place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals: gold, silver, and bronze, respectively.

The Games have grown so much that nearly every nation is now represented, creating many challenges such as boycotts, doping, bribery, and acts of terrorism. Every two years the Olympics and its media exposure provide unknown athletes with the chance to attain national and sometimes international fame and the host city and country to present themselves to the world.


1 Ancient Olympics
2 Modern Games
2.1 Forerunners
2.2 Revival
2.3 1896 Games
2.4 Changes and adaptations
2.4.1 Winter Games
2.4.2 Paralympics
2.4.3 Youth Games
2.5 21st century games
2.6 Economic and social impact on host cities and countries 3 International Olympic Committee
3.1 Criticism
4 Commercialization
4.1 Budget
4.2 Effect of television
4.3 Controversy
5 Symbols
6 Ceremonies
6.1 Opening

References: Jump up ^ Coubertin et al. 1897, p. 8, Part 2.
Jump up ^ Gibson, Owen (4 May 2010). "Sainsbury 's announces sponsorship of 2012 Paralympics". The Guardian (London).
Jump up ^ Rice, John (5 July 2007). "IOC approves Youth Olympics; first set for 2010". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved 2 February 2009.
Jump up ^ Wade, Stephen (25 April 2007). "No kidding: Teens to get Youth Olympic Games". USA Today. Retrieved 27 August 2008.
Jump up ^ Michaelis, Vicky (5 July 2007). "IOC votes to start Youth Olympics in 2010". USA Today. Retrieved 2 February 2009.
Jump up ^ Rose, A. K., & Spiegel, M. M. (2011). The Olympic Effect*. The Economic Journal, 121(553), 652–677.
Jump up ^ Tilcsik, A. and Marquis, C. 2013. "Punctuated Generosity: How Mega-events and Natural Disasters Affect Corporate Philanthropy in U.S. Communities." Administrative Science Quarterly, 58(1): 111–148..
Jump up ^ Glynn, M. A. (2008). "Configuring the field of play: how hosting the Olympic Games impacts civic community." Journal of Management Studies, 45(6), 1117–1146.
Jump up ^ Riding, Alan (30 June 1992). "Olympics:Barcelona Profile; Samaranch, Under the Gun Shoots Back". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 January 2009.
Jump up ^ Abrahamson, Alan (6 December 2003). "Judge Drops Olympic Bid Case". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 21 March 2009.
Jump up ^ Rowlatt, Justin (29 July 2004). "Buying the Games". BBC. Retrieved 16 April 2009.
Jump up ^ Zinser, Lynn (7 July 2005). "London Wins 2012 Olympics New York Lags". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 February 2009.
Jump up ^ Berkes, Howard (7 February 2006). "How Turin got the Games". National Public Radio. Retrieved 4 February 2009.
Jump up ^ Whannel, G. (1984) The television spectacular in A. Tomlinson & G. Whannel (Eds.), Five-ring circus (pp. 30–43). London: Pluto Press
Jump up ^ Tomlinson 2005, p
Jump up ^ Walters, Walters (2 October 2000). "All fall down". Sports Illustrated (Time Inc.). Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2009.
^ Jump up to: a b Carter, Bill; Sandomir, Richard (17 August 2008). "A Surprise Winner at the Olympic Games in Beijing: NBC". The New York Times (NYTimes.com). Retrieved 2 April 2009.
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