Oil and Gas

Better Essays
Topics: Petroleum
Unit-1
Petroleum Exploration — An Introduction
Objective: After reading this unit you would be able to understand: What are hydrocarbons? What are their properties? What are the main products derived from crude oil and their uses Exploration milestone-an overview. INTRODUCTION: By definition petroleum is a generic name for hydrocarbons, including crude oil, natural gas liquids, natural gas and their products. Petroleum comes from the Latin petra meaning rock or stone & oleum meaning oil. Petroleum occurs in the earth in combination of any of the four states: gas, liquid, semisolid, and solid. Chemically, petroleum is a mixture of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (called hydrocarbons) with minor amounts of nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur as impurities along with heavy metals. Petroleum is organic; it contains complex carbon, hydrogen molecular structures (CH4) called chains that are linked together to form long-chains of more complex molecules. TYPES OF PETROLEUM: There are three general types of petroleum: 1. Crude oil, 2. Natural gas, and 3. Semi-solid and Solid forms. 1. Crude oil refers to liquid petroleum as opposed to refined oil. These are liquid hydrocarbons that contain varying amounts of dissolved gases, bitumens, and other impurities. In the raw state, crude oil resembles ordinary lubricating oil. It is immiscible with water and has a density less than that of sea water -- thus, crude oil floats on water. Crude oil is however, soluble in naphtha, carbon disulfide, ether, and benzene.

Thick crude oil.

Lighter crude oil

1

Very light crude oil.

Petroleum in solid state at room temperature Figure 1

2. Natural gas is petroleum gas as distinguished from manufactured gas. Natural gas consists of lighter paraffin hydrocarbons (hydrocarbons of the methane series), the most abundant being methane gas (CH4). 3. Semi, and solid forms are called heavy hydrocarbons and bitumens. They comprise materials such as asphalt, tar, pitch, albertite, or any number

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Powerful Essays

    oil and gas

    • 33368 Words
    • 134 Pages

    United States Gulf of Mexico Oil and Natural Gas Industry Economic Impact Analysis The Economic Impacts of GOM Oil and Natural Gas Development on the U.S. Economy Prepared by: Quest Offshore Resources, Inc. Prepared for: 1600 Highway 6, Suite 300 American Petroleum Institute (API) Sugar Land, TX 77478 National Ocean Industries Association (NOIA) June 2011 Key Findings This report has documented the decline in generate tax revenues at all levels of capital operational…

    • 33368 Words
    • 134 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Oil and Gas

    • 1746 Words
    • 7 Pages

    augustine girls’ high school | The Mining of Oil and Natural Gas in Trinidad and Tobago | Geography | | Sareeta Seeram, Inayah Mohammed, Mariah Ollivierre, Maria Ollivierre and Arielle Mootra | 9/1/2013 | | ------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents: * Location of Oilfields and Gas Fields in Trinidad and Tobago…………………. Pg 2 * Factors that Influence the Location of Oil and Gas Mining…

    • 1746 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Better Essays

    Oil & Gas

    • 3741 Words
    • 16 Pages

    Oil & Gas Sector Analysis Submitted to Dr. Atmanand In partial fulfilment of the requirements of the course Managerial Economics Submitted By GROUP 2 Ankita Chokraborty (13PGHR06) Arjun Parekh (13PGHR07) Ashim Gupta (13PGHR08) Atul Kohli (13PGHR10) B Vishnu Vardhan (13PGHR11) Tanya Mehta (13PGHR58) Acknowledgement Of the many people who have been enormously helpful in the preparation of this project, we are especially thankful to Dr. Atmanand, Professor, Economics…

    • 3741 Words
    • 16 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Good Essays

    Gas and Oil

    • 493 Words
    • 2 Pages

    Oil and gas conservation means their better and more efficient use with regard to economic, social or environment costs and benefits resulting minimization of wastage and protection of environment. A very high priority is attached by the government to conservation of petroleum products in view of the need to reduce increasing gap between demand for and supply of oil and petroleum products. Government has initiated various steps to promote conservation of petroleum products in the different sectors…

    • 493 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    oil & gas

    • 1546 Words
    • 7 Pages

    Oil And Gas: How Both Affect The Economy The economy is affected by many factors that determine if it is strong or weak. These factors have to do with buyers consuming goods and services and at what rate they do this. Do the goods and services that are consumed by people created wealth, jobs and a better overall economy for a country. Throughout history some economies have evolved faster and stronger than others. Policies that the government places on industry, technology and the environment…

    • 1546 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Best Essays

    Oil and Gas

    • 4928 Words
    • 20 Pages

    OIL AND GAS ACCOUNTING: CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF THE APPLICATION OF THEORY TO PRACTICE IN NIGERIA 1.0 INTRODUCTION: The natural resources of a nation, particularly the minerals, often constitute the lion's share of the nation's wealth. This is particularly true of the OPEC nations including Nigeria. Prior to the development of accounting standards issued by the Nigerian Accounting Standards Board (NASB), the financial statements published by the oil and gas industry in Nigeria did not disclose adequate…

    • 4928 Words
    • 20 Pages
    Best Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    oil and gas

    • 539 Words
    • 3 Pages

    The uses for fuel include everyday uses in our homes, running vehicles, and the use in manufacturing plants and other businesses that run on fuel. BMI oil and gas forecasts have been extended to cover a 10-year period, providing a guide to likely supply and demand trends from 2008 to 2018 (Oil & Gas Outlook: Long-Term Forcasts, 2009). Gas demands have been rising because environmental concerns have caused fuel to be the choice for power in many parts of the world. It is suggested that the fuel…

    • 539 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Oil and Gas

    • 683 Words
    • 3 Pages

    The Economic Times You are here: ET Home › New s › New s By Industry › Energy › Oil & Gas Fall in KG output may turn 40k crore investment into NPAs By Rajeev Deshpande, TNN | 27 Jul, 2013, 06.44AM IST Post a Com m ent NEW DELHI: Rs 40,000 crore of investments in power plants with an installed capacity of 4,904 MW are at risk of turning into non-performing assets due to non-availability of domestic natural gas, primarily due to low production at the Reliance-run KG offshore fields. The government…

    • 683 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Oil and Gas

    • 633 Words
    • 5 Pages

    Midstream Gas Processing Frac Spread What is it? Why is it important? The Midstream Value Chain Gathering / Processing NGLs Fractionation Transportation Storage Marketing Chemicals, fuels, blend stocks Residue Gas Transportation Storage Marketing Utilities, industrial Most Raw gas produced at the wellhead is not pipeline quality Must be processed Ethane Propane Normal Butane IsoButane Natural Gasoline How midstream companies make money Gathering – fee/ commodity based Processing…

    • 633 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Oil and Gas

    • 670 Words
    • 3 Pages

    | Distillation is defined as: `Distillation is based on the fact that the vapor of a boiling mixture will be richer in the components that have lower boiling points.Therefore, when this vapor is cooled and condensed, the condensate will contain more volatile components. At the same time, the original mixture will contain more of the less volatile material. Distillation columns are designed to achieve this separation efficiently.Although many people have a fair idea what “distillation” means, the…

    • 670 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays