April 20, 2013
Odessa is a city in Ukraine. It is on the north shore of the Black Sea and east of the Moldova River. Odessa is located southeast of Vinnitsa, southwest of Kirovograd, and directly south of Cherkassy. Odessa has a population of over 1.1 million. It is the third largest city in Ukraine.
The town of Odessa was established in 1794. Odessa is Ukraine’s business center with America. It is also one of Ukraine’s naval bases. Odessa’s major industries are shipbuilding, oil refining, chemicals, metalworking and food processing. The Odessa National Academic Theater of Opera and Ballet is the oldest theater in Odessa and the most famous theater in all of Ukraine. Many famous people are from Ukraine. Isaac Babel is a writer from Ukraine, Ilya Mechnikov won the Nobel Prize in Medicine, Tatiana Gutsu is a famous gymnast, Efim Geller is a famous chess player, and David Oistrakh is a famous musician, just to name a few.
The Treaty of Jassy in 1792 forced Turkey to give up the region between the Dniester and the Buh to Russia. Now that Russia had control of Hachibey (later to be named Odessa in 1794), they decided to rebuild Hachibey as a fort, naval base, and commercial port. The city grew rapidly because of it was a chief grain-exporting center of Ukraine. Its importance was enhanced further when the railroad was established in the middle of the 19th century. Odessa’s primary industrialization began later in the 19th century. Odessa fell to German and Romanian forces in October 1941 in World War II. It was under Romanian rule as the capital of Transnistra until it was liberated by the Soviet Army in April 1944. More than 280,000 civilians, most of whom were Jews, were deported or killed during the Axis Occupation.
Jews have lived in Odessa since the eighteenth century. Five Jews established themselves in Odessa in 1789, soon after the Russians took control of it. In 1795, the Jewish population increased to 240. Also, evidence...
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