1. Understand the anatomy and physiology of the skin in relatio to pressure area care
Pressure sores are a type of injury that break down the skin and underlying tissue. They are caused when an area of skin is placed under pressure. Pressure sores can range in severity from patches of discoloured skin to open wounds that expose the underlying bone or muscle.
1.2 The parts of the body most at risk of developing pressure ulcers are those that are not covered by a large amount of body fat and are in direct contact with a supporting surface, such as a bed or a wheelchair.
For example, if they are unable to get out of bed you are at risk of developing pressure ulcers on their: shoulders or shoulder blades elbows back of your head rims of your ears knees, ankles, heels or toes spine tail bone (the small bone at the bottom of your spine)
If they are a wheelchair user, they are at risk of developing pressure ulcers on: their buttocks the back of the arms and legs the back of the hip bone 1.3 Pressure sores develop when a large amount of pressure is applied to an area of skin over a short period of time. Or, when less pressure is applied over a longer period of time.
The extra pressure disrupts the flow of blood through the skin. Without a blood supply, the affected skin becomes starved of oxygen and nutrients and begins to break down, leading to an ulcer forming.
Pressure ulcers tend to affect people with health conditions that make it difficult to move, especially those confined to lying in a bed or sitting for prolonged periods of time.
Conditions that affect the flow of blood through the body, such as type 2 diabetes, can also make a person more vulnerable to pressure ulcers.
1.4 By using incorrect moving and handling techniques one might put residents at risk. This can happen when residents are moved into: • Chairs- they may be unable to get out of it .The