Occupational Stress By: David J. Derro (firstname.lastname@example.org) Opening Statement: This paper will examine some causes and some of the effects of stress on individuals in the work environment. Role overload will be discussed as a major agent of stress at both work and home. Role Underload, Role Conflict, Role Ambiguity will be discussed briefly for comparison. Examples of stress in the work place will be used to illustrate the broad ramifications of stress in the occupational setting. Examples of Electromyography (EMG) will be given as a means of biologically diagnosing occupational and personnal stress cases as opposed to occupational soft muscle tissue diseases. Finally, interventions such as stress management programs will also be explored, as well as the benefits such programs can deliver to an organization. What is Stress?: "Stress - The confusion created when one's mind overrides the body's basic desire to choke the hell out of someone who so desperately deserves it" (Author unknown). There are many biological, engineering and physiological definitions of stress but, the definition above is the most simplified and applicable in today's fast moving business world. More classical "engineering" definition cited by R. Kahn (1992) use during the 18th and 19th centuries described stress as "A force or pressure exerted upon a material object, or person". Stress as defined by Quick, Horn and Quick (1987) "is a naturally occurring experience essential to our growth, change development both at work and at home. Depending on the way stress is handled it may have a detrimental effect on our health and well-being or it may have a beneficial effect". In order to have stress there must be a stressor, or a physical or physiological stimulus to encourage the onset of stress response. A physical stressor in a manufacturing setting may be noise, heat, dust, mist, fumes, poor lighting etc (Evans, Cohen 1987). Psychological stressors could be items such as conflicting views with your manager or, seemingly unattainable deadlines. Problems at home may compound these issues when they are presented in an occupational situation. Stress may be caused by many different situations in the various environments that we are a part of each day. Some social stress factors may be measured by Life Crisis Units (LCU) (Holmes and Rahe, 1967). This scale is used to aid in evaluation of, but not predict, an individuals susceptibility to stress based on naturally occurring stressors taking place in their life. The following stressors are ranked based on this scale: Death 100 Life Crisis Units Separations or divorce 50 Life Crisis Units Arguments with important people 25 LCU. Life Crisis Units Sound familiar? A lot of the above circumstances are as unavoidable death and taxes (Unless you are Leona Helmsly and even then the IRS will catch up to you). At work, some stress factors may be; the possibility or reality of losing your job, poor supervision, lack of goals, rotating shifts and the inability to keep up with technology. Let's look at the technology and the rate of change in computers in just the last 10 years. To a ten year old this may be no big deal, the stressor may not exist because the child is a product of a computer driven society. But to a fifty year old person, the rate of technology advancement over this period of time may be to much change compared to their experience. In some cases, failure to understand such technology in the work environment, may mean the loss of possible advancement opportunities. One stressor may cause another to create a domino effect of stressors. According to W. Hendrix (1987) these stressors may build up and cause job as well as social stress. Are some individuals more prone to stress than others?: By use of the Person/Environment Fit Model (Kahn 1964-1979-1992) it can be hypothesized that certain individuals may be at a higher risk for work related stress then others. For example, a person who has "Role Overload"...
References: Books Evans G., Cohen S. (1987) Environmental Stress Handbook of Environmental Psychology chapter 15, vol 1 Wiley Interscience Publication, New York, NY., 572-576 Kahn, R.L. & Byoriere, P. (1992) Stress in Organizations Handbook of Organizational Psychology, 2nd ed., Vol 3 571-575, Palo Alto CA: Consulting Psychologist Press Periodicals and Journals Bacharach Samuel B, Bamberger Peter & Conley (1991) Work Home Conflict Among Nurses and Engineers Journal of Organizational Behavior Jan vol 12, 39-53 Golembiewski, Robert & Munzenrider Robert (1991) Burnout and Mental Health: A Pilot Study Organizational Development Journal, Sum Vol 9, 51-57 Heirch, Max (1989) Making Stress Management Relevant to worksite wellness Advances Spr Vol 6, 36-40 Hendrix William H; Steel Robert P & Schultz Sherryl A (1987) Job Stress and Life Stress Journal of Social Behavior & Personality Aug Vol 2, 291-302 Klintzman Susan; House James s; Israel Barbara A & Mero Richard P (1990) Work Stress, Non-work Stress & Health Journal of Behavioral Medicine, Jun Vol 13, 221-243 Murphy L R; Dubois David & Hurrel, Joseph (1986) Accident Reduction Through Stress Management Journal of Business and Psychology Fall Volume 1, 5-18 Newsweek Publication Business Section (1988) Newsweek April 25, 42-45 Penton Publication Workers ' Comp Update (1992) Occupational Hazards, Oct, 173-178 Quick, Jonathan D; Hoin Rebecca S & Quick, James (1986) Health Consequences of Stress Journal of Organizational Behavior Management Fal-Win Vol 8, 19-36 Electronic Media National Council on Compensation Insurance, Inc. Available http://www.ncci.com/html/ncfoj2.htm
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