Observation: Infant and Toddler Development
There are various factors that play a role in a child’s development. Based on several articles I will be discussing the physical, cognitive, and social development of infants and toddlers. The level of exposure to these various factors will determine how successful they develop in years to come. All children develop at their own rate and no two children are the same. The development of the child is based solely on child’s caregiver to provide these essential skills within their environment. Article Summary
The article that I read discussed that when it comes to physical development there are three types of physical activity considered as play. Rhythmic stereotypies are the first activities which occur during infancy (Timmons, Naylor, & Pfeiffer, 2007). These are gross motor movements that occur for no apparent reason and they make up forty percent of an infant’s activity (Timmons, Naylor, & Pfeiffer, 2007). These movements coupled with play initiated by the caregiver makes up the primary source of physical activity for an infant (Timmons, Naylor, & Pfeiffer, 2007). Secondly, exercise play consists of gross locomotor movements in the context of play which begins at age one and ends at year four or five (Timmons, Naylor, & Pfeiffer, 2007). Strength, endurance, and utilization of skill and movement are the main purpose of exercise play (Timmons, Naylor, & Pfeiffer, 2007). The more exposure to exercise play may benefit a child later when it comes to their cognitive and psychological development. As they reach age five the third type of physical activity is called rough and tumble. At this stage formal games, competition, group orientated activities and cooperative play takes place (Timmons, Naylor, & Pfeiffer, 2007). This type of play is relevant to a child’s social development. The amount of play that is needed for adequate physical development is unknown but researchers do agree according to the articles that play is...
References: Timmons, B. W., Naylor, P., & Pfeiffer, K. A. (2007). Physical activity for preschool children - how much and how?. Applied Physiology, Nutrition & Metabolism, 32S122-S134.
Rosenthal, M. K., & Gatt, L. (2010). 'Learning to Live Together ': training early childhood educators to promote socio-emotional competence of toddlers and pre-school children. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 18(3), 223-240. doi:10.1080/1350293X.2010.500076
Lemelin, J., Tarabulsy, G. M., & Provost, M. A. (2006). Predicting Preschool Cognitive Development from Infant Temperament, Maternal Sensitivity, and Psychosocial Risk. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 52(4), 779-806.
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