Preview

Object Relations Theory

Powerful Essays
Open Document
Open Document
14765 Words
Grammar
Grammar
Plagiarism
Plagiarism
Writing
Writing
Score
Score
Object Relations Theory
1

OBJECT RELATIONS THEORY

Instructor: Michael J. Gerson, PhD

Copyright © 1996 by the Institute of Advanced Psychological Studies. All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

Introduction The following presentation is aimed at explicating the basic principles of psychoanalytic theory and presenting the various descriptive models or paradigms used. I also hope to clarify some misconceptions about psychoanalysis and provide a basis for the logical extension of psychoanalytic thought into psychotherapeutic work. Since about 1900 psychoanalytic thinking has been influential in defining a branch of psychology, a method for investigating and describing human behavior, and a treatment modality for mental disorders. Some critics might further add that psychoanalysis has also formed a quasi-religious culture. This course is not intended to create "believers," "converts," or to proselytize a belief system. In fact, any thorough reading of Freud would clearly suggest the mind of a critical, pragmatic, eclectic, and scholarly intellectual who was constantly questioning and challenging his own and other peoples ' beliefs. We cannot escape, however, the historical legacy of science, medicine, and psychology which is often traced to magical and/or religious predecessors (Fenichel, 1945). While psychoanalysis is also fraught with a good deal of jargon that further supports an esoteric mysterious context, I will make every effort to reduce the jargon to relatively simple definitions that are actually in keeping with Freud 's own tradition. For those students who have not read much of the original writings of Freud, I would strongly urge you to do so. Not only is there a great breadth of material covered in the 24 volumes of the Standard



Bibliography: Arlow, J. A., & Brenner, C. (1964). Psychoanalytic concepts and the structural theory. New York: International Universities Press. Cameron, N. (1963). Personality development and psychopathology. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Freud, S. (1961). The interpretation of dreams. In J. Strachy (Ed. and Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 4). London: Hogarth Press. (Original work published 1900) Freud, S. (1961). The psychopathology of everyday life. In J. Strachy (Ed. and Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 6). London: Hogarth Press. (Original work published 1901) Freud, S. (1961). A case of hysteria: Three essays on sexuality and other works. In J. Strachy (Ed. and Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 7). London: Hogarth Press. (Original work published 1901-1905) Freud, S. (1961). Jokes and their relation to the unconscious. In J. Strachy (Ed. and Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 8). London: Hogarth Press. (Original work published 1905) Freud, S. (1961). Introductory lectures on psycho-analysis. In J. Strachy (Ed. and Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 15). London: Hogarth Press. (Original work published 1915-1916) Freud, S. (1961). Beyond the pleasure principle, group psychology and other works. In J. Strachy (Ed. and Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 18). London: Hogarth Press. (Original work published 1920-1922) Freud, S. (1961). Ego and the id. In J. Strachy (Ed. and Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19). London: Hogarth Press. (Original work published 1923) Freud, S. (1961). Inhibitions, symptoms and anxiety. In J. Strachy (Ed. and Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 20). London: Hogarth Press. (Original work published 1926) Freud, S. (1961). Civilization and its discontents. In J. Strachy (Ed. and Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 21). London: Hogarth Press. (Original work published 1930) Freud, S. (1961). An outline of psycho-analysis. In J. Strachy (Ed. and Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 23). London: Hogarth Press. (Original work published 1940) Feist, J. (1990). Theories of personality. Fort Worth: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Fenichel, O. (1945). The psychoanalytic theory of neurosis. New York: W. W. Norton. Hartmann, H. (1958). Ego psychology and the problem of adaptation. New York: International Universities Press. Monroe, R. (1955). Schools of psychoanalytic thought. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Moore, B. E., & Fine, B. D. (1968). A glossary of psychoanalytic terms and concepts. New York: American Psychoanalytic Association. Rapoport, D. (1960). The structure of psychoanalytic theory. Psychological Issues, 2 (2).

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Good Essays

    Essay on Sigmund Freud

    • 537 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Sigmund Freud is considered to be one of the most important figures in the fields of psychiatry and psychology. His ideas about psychoanalysis were developed in the 1800's but are still being used today by professionals in the mental health field. This report will give some facts about his personal life, educational background, professional ideas, and accomplishments.…

    • 537 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    positive psychology

    • 286 Words
    • 2 Pages

    Traditional psychology appeared to explain the development of mental disorders and provided a framework for the treatment of these disorders or emotional difficulties. This started in the earlier 1900’s with Sigmund Freud, but holes began to appear in this first global theory. The theory explained behavior in terms of conditioning and reinforcement. Psychoanalytic theory used to explain emotional problems and psychoanalysis was the treatment preferred, which often failed. There were so many experiences influencing their observations that we had a variety of different paradigms.…

    • 286 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    • 2686 Words
    • 11 Pages

    In order to overcome behavioral problems such as anxiety, depression or fear, individuals usually communicate their problems or anxieties with their trusted friends or family members. In case of a somewhat complicated problem, a counselor is consulted. These are a relatively simple form of psychotherapies that individuals have been practicing from centuries. However, with the development of modern science and advancements in the field of psychology, theorists have identified some more effective approaches for psychoanalysis. The most noticeable work in this regard was done by Sigmund Freud who was the first to develop modern techniques for psychoanalysis. Despite of the fact that Freud’s approaches towards psychoanalysis have received considerable criticism, they have proved to be beneficial in solving behavioral problems. It should be noted that the development of psychotherapy has been used as a means to solve behavioral problems from centuries. Although, modern approaches towards psychoanalysis are somewhat different from the indigenous methods, they are some similarities in terms of their theories.…

    • 2686 Words
    • 11 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Thoughts on Freud

    • 1101 Words
    • 5 Pages

    Freud, S., Strachey, J., Freud, A., Rothgeb, C. L., Richards, A., & Scientific Literature Corporation. (1900). The standard edition of the complete psychological works of sigmund freud. London: Hogarth Press.…

    • 1101 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    References: Midgley, N. (2008). The 'Matchbox School ' (1927-1932): Anna Freud and the idea of a 'psychoanalytically informed education '*. Journal Of Child Psychotherapy, 34(1), 23-42. doi:10.1080/00754170801895920…

    • 1588 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Drew Westen Department of Psychiatry Harvard Medical School ABSTRACT Although commentators periodically declare that Freud is dead, his repeated burials lie on shaky grounds. Critics typically attack an archaic version of psychodynamic theory that most clinicians similarly consider obsolete. Central to contemporary psychodynamic theory is a series of propositions about (a) unconscious cognitive, affective, and motivational processes; (b) ambivalence and the tendency for affective and motivational dynamics to operate in parallel and produce compromise solutions; (c) the origins of many personality and social dispositions in childhood; (d) mental representations of the self, others, and relationships; and (e) developmental dynamics. An enormous body of research in cognitive, social, developmental, and personality psychology now supports many of these propositions. Freud 's scientific legacy has implications for a wide range of domains in psychology, such as integration of affective and motivational constraints into connectionist models in cognitive science. Freud, like Elvis, has been dead for a number of years but continues to be cited with some regularity. Although the majority of clinicians report that they rely to some degree upon psychodynamic 1 principles in their work ( Pope, Tabachnick, & Keith-Spiegel, 1987 ), most researchers consider psychodynamic ideas to be at worst absurd and obsolete and at best irrelevant or of little scientific interest. In the lead article of a recent edition of Psychological Science, Crews (1996) arrived at a conclusion shared by many: "[T]here is literally nothing to be said, scientifically or therapeutically, to the advantage of the entire Freudian system or any of its…

    • 41571 Words
    • 167 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    Another aspect I do not agree with in this paper is the many references to Sigmund Freud’s studies. Sigmund Freud, although influential to many concepts, is no longer a credible source for a scholarly paper because of the many inaccuracies in his works. I recommend including the concepts of other theorists and researchers to add to his claims to further support the thesis. There are many recent sources and concepts to include along with the well-known ideas of Sigmund Freud.…

    • 466 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Sigmund Freud, founder of the psychodynamic approach collected works of theories for the foundation of psychoanalysis. Freud theorised on a wide scale of topics which he used to develop during the course of his writing. Freud’s early childhood of his case study ‘Little Hans’ investigates the unconscious drives and motivations that causes phobias, anxieties, fantasies and sexual desires. This essay aims to illustrate Freud’s psychodynamic approach of the unconscious mind, structure of personality and the how these themes have been influential in the understanding of childhood development. Freud’s theories were based on his observations of adult patients, children and the self-analysis of himself, in developing his theoretical ideas. This essay will go on to analyse the efficiency of psychoanalytic theories in Freud’s analysis of the ‘Little Hans’ case study.…

    • 1653 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    Psychodynamic Theory

    • 668 Words
    • 3 Pages

    According to Cortina (2010), one of the tell-tale signs that psychodynamic theory has taken a dive in the world of psychotherapy is because of the decline in related book sales. Not even a decade ago, the bestselling psychoanalytical books were sold by the tens of thousands. Over the past few years, less than 500 have been taken off the shelves and found their way into the hands of appreciating scholars. A proposed reason for this is that Freud’s credibility has been lost. Although there was not adequate scientific evidence to back up his theories back in the day, a lot has changed in the past century. Unfortunately, Freud’s theory has become nothing more than a “postmodern-deconstructive philosophy” (Cortina, 2010, The Decline of Psychoanalysis, para. 4).…

    • 668 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Better Essays

    Sigmund Freud has been called the father of psychotherapy. His studies and views on how personality develops and is affected by different experiences or exposures to stimuli have been disputed and discussed for over 100 years. This paper will highlight Freud's life and theories as well as answer two questions. These two questions are; did Freud sexually abuse children and did Freud have a personal vendetta against women?…

    • 1797 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Putnam,J. (1917). The theories of Freud, Jung and Adler: I. The work of Sigmund Freud.…

    • 1463 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    This research paper will compare and contrast two of the most influencial psychologists who helped shape the way we understand the development of the human mind; Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson. The paper will focus on the similarities and differences between Freud’s Psycho-sexual theory, and Erikson’s psychosocial theory. Freud was one of the very first influencial psychologists who changed the way we study humans. Erikson recognized Freud’s contributions, and although he felt Freud misjudged some important dimensions of human development, he was still influenced by Freud, which caused some similarities in their theories.…

    • 327 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Best Essays

    Psychological theories and the therapies that result from them are of great importance to the counselor who is engaged in helping people through difficult times and/or mental illness. The modern western tradition of counseling, and in particular psychoanalysis, began with Sigmund Freud. Very little effort is given here to understand where his ideas originated, but, that does not mean his thoughts were independent of his culture, time period, and personal experiences. For Freud, and in fact everyone after him, individual theories and concepts evolve and in time “new” theories appear as older ideas give way to new-found “truths”. This paper begins with Freud and then onto the two other grand theories, behaviorism and cognitive theory. On this journey, the reader will be traveling from the end of the Enlightenment, through modernism and end up in the post-modern world. Although not directly stated, this can be seen as Freud’s opinion that mankind is just…

    • 4970 Words
    • 20 Pages
    Best Essays
  • Good Essays

    Psychoanalytic Personality

    • 1015 Words
    • 5 Pages

    People have called Dr. Sigmund Freud one of the greatest psychologists of all times. Within a short period of time he had many others that were followers. Jung and Alder later join Freud and some people called them the three wise men. In my paper I will be comparing and contrasting the psychoanalytic theories of Freud, Jung, and Adler. I will also mention which two characteristics of theories that I disagree and agree with. Describing and explaining the stages of Freud’s can be quite challenging, but I’m going to try my best. I will be giving real-life examples, when describing uses of at least three Freudian defense mechanisms.…

    • 1015 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Boeree, G.C. (1997). Personality theories: Sigmund Freud. Pennsylvania, USA: Shippensburg University Psychology Department. Retrieved July 9, 2005 from http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/freud.html…

    • 1424 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Powerful Essays