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obesity

By Pdshah Nov 27, 2013 1186 Words
Obesity
Obesity is a growing health problem in many nations of the world and should now be considered as a chronic disease that is reaching epidemic proportions. In most simple term obesity means having excess body fat. The most common measure of obesity is the body mass index, or BMI. BMI is mass (kg) divided by the square of the height (meters); it is highly correlate with the body fat. “Healthy” people have a BMI of 20-25, those with a BMI of 25-30 are deemed to be “overweight”, those with a BMI of >30 are said to be obese and those with a BMI> 40 to be morbidity obese. The level of BMI depends on the energy balance. An operational definition of obesity would that it is a multi factorial disorder of energy balance in which calorie intake over the long term has been greater than actual energy output, resulting in an excessively large BMI. (Rang, H. P., et al, 394) Then causes of Obesity mainly includes when a person consumes more calories than he or she burns. For many people, this boils down to eating too much and exercising too little. But there are other factors that also play a role in obesity.  Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food energy intake, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility, although a few cases caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, medications or psychiatric illness. Evidence to support the view that some obese people eat little yet gain weight due to a slow metabolism is limited; on average obese people have a greater energy expenditure than their thin counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass. (Rang, H. P., et al, 398) The prevalence of the obesity is a growing and costly health problem in many of the richest nations of world and it is now considered as a chronic disease. Approximately 33% of adults in USA are said to be obese and the incidence in the other developing nations is increasing. In Europe, 15-20% of the middle aged population is obese (Bjorntorp). The most common consequence with a BMI above 30 there is a significant increase in the risk of non insulin dependent (type 2) diabetes mellitus. The risk of hypertension, hypertriglyceridaemia, gall stones, and ischemic heart disease is also increased. Obese peoples have an increase risk of colon, breast, prostate and ovarian cancer. Numerous other diseases related to the obesity including osteoarthritis, hyperuricaemia. Gross obesity (BMI over 40) is associated with a 12 fold increase in mortality in the group aged 25-35 years compared with those in this age group with a BMI of 20-25. According to WHO, The risk for these non communicable diseases increase, with the increase in BMI. Childhood obesity is associated with a higher chance of obesity, premature death and disability in adulthood. But in addition to increased future risks, obese children experience breathing difficulties, increased risk of fractures, hypertension, and early markers of cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and psychological effects. WHO also described about many low and middle-income countries are now facing a "double burden" of disease. Children in low- and middle-income countries are more vulnerable to inadequate pre-natal, infant and young child nutrition At the same time, they are exposed to high-fat, high-sugar, high-salt, energy-dense, micronutrient-poor foods, which tend to be lower in cost but also lower in nutrient quality. These dietary patterns in conjunction with lower levels of physical activity, result in sharp increases in childhood obesity while under nutrition issues remain unsolved. The pathology of obesity results from a greater consumption of energy than is used by the body. As this energy is stored, fat cells enlarge, producing the characteristic pathology of obesity. The pathologic enlargement of fat cells, in turn, produces altered levels of many peptide and nutrient signals that are responsible for the disease we call "obesity." Thus, the increased intake of food does not signal satiety, and there is a gradual increase in energy stores as intake of energy outpaces need as we grow older. For most patients, however, it is not possible to connect obesity to a specific cause. Leptin deficiency and defects in the leptin receptor both produce human obesity. Of the genetic causes, Prader-Willi syndrome is the most common. Hypothalamic injury following craniopharyngioma is the most common neuro endocrine cause. Endocrine disorders such as Cushing's disease, polycystic ovary disease, and growth-hormone deficiency can lead to increased body fat. In the modern world, exposure to a high-fat diet predisposes many people to obesity, and this problem is compounded by the low levels of activity now required for daily living. (GA Bray) Overweight and obesity, as well as their related noncommunicable diseases, are largely preventable. Supportive environments and communities are fundamental in shaping people’s choices, making the healthier choice of foods and regular physical activity the easiest choice (accessible, available and affordable), and therefore preventing obesity. For prevention of this obesity, at the individual level, people can: limit energy intake from total fats and sugars; increase consumption of fruit and vegetables, as well as legumes, whole grains and nuts; engage in regular physical activity (60 minutes a day for children and 150 minutes per week for adults). Individual responsibility can only have its full effect where people have access to a healthy lifestyle. Therefore, at the societal level it is important to make regular physical activity and healthier dietary choices available, affordable and easily accessible to all especially the poorest individuals. The food industry can also play a significant role in promoting healthy diets by: reducing the fat, sugar and salt content of processed foods; ensuring that healthy and nutritious choices are available and affordable to all consumers; practicing responsible marketing especially those aimed at children and teenagers; ensuring the availability of healthy food choices and supporting regular physical activity practice in the workplace. In conclusion, Obesity is one of the most important global concerns. Obesity has lot of effects that cannot only ruin a persons’ life but also can end it. People who are struggling with obesity should start to do more physically active in their life so that way they can burn all their fat.

Work cited
GA, Bray. "Etiology and pathogenesis of obesity." Clin cornerstone 2.3 (1999): 1-15.   Print.  "Obesity and Overweight." Who.int. WHO, n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2013.   
Rang, H. P., et al. Pharmacology. Fifth ed. N.p.: Churchill Livingstone, 2003.  Print. 

Reflection question answers:
I used book and some internet magazine abstract to make my story meaningful. As per my point of view, obesity is the most common issue among the world, so I described about its definition, causes and prevention, therefore my audience come to know how it can be prevented and they get aware of the consequences of it. a. I encountered challenged in drafting work cited page. I solved problem by read my text book. And my intrusctor also guided me well for it. b. I learnt that if you gathered the information from any other source then it is an important to cite the work of other. I also learn value of work cited in assignment. c. I don’t think inctructor could have done differently other than this.

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