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Obesity

By rlray Nov 25, 2013 1206 Words
Obesity means having excess body fat. For adults 35 and older, having a BMI (Body Mass Index) greater than 30 is considered obese. Obesity is a chronic medical disease that can lead to diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, gallstones, and other chronic illnesses. Obesity is difficult to treat and has a high relapse rate. Greater than 95% of those who lose weight regain the weight within five years. Obesity means having too much body fat. It is not the same as being overweight, which means weighing too much. A person may be overweight from extra muscle, bone, or water, as well as from having too much fat. Since the 1970’s children from age 6-19 classified as overweight went from 5 to 17%; over the same time period fast food restaurants more than doubled which means now its somewhere around 300,000 institutions in the US Children, having a fast food restaurant within 0.10 miles of school increases the probability of obesity by 5.2 percent The effects of fast food access are larger for girls.

Fast food may not cause obesity but it signifigantly increases the risk 33.8 percent of the U.S. population is affected by obesity and 19 percent of children and adolescents are also affected McDonalds Big Mac: 540 calories and 29 g of fat

Burger King Whopper: 670 calories and 40 g of fat
Wendy’s Bacon Deluxe Double: 880 calories and 52 g of fat Taco Bell Nachos Bell Grande: 770 calories and 24 g of fat Medium fries at McDonalds: 380 calories and 19 g of fat
Onion rings at Dairy Queen: 360 calories and 16 g of fat Regular cole slaw at Popeye’s: 260 calories and 23 g of fat Large Frosty at Wendy’s: 540 calories and 8 g of fat
Large sweet tea at McDonalds: 280 calories and 0 g of fat Iced Carmel Latte from Dunkin Donuts: 450 calories and 12 g of fat

These foods are highly processed, full of fat, calories and sodium caloric recommendation for Americans is 1,500-1,800 calories per-day and around 50-60 grams of total fat. Choosing a typical fast food meal every day can lead to increased calories which can lead to weight gain and can lead to other health conditions like heart disease The extra fat in your diet can lead to cardio vascular dieseas Every day, nearly one-third of U.S. children aged 4 to 19 eat fast food, which likely packs on about six extra pounds per child per year and increases the risk of obesity billions of dollars are spent each year on fast-food advertising directed at kids, said lead author Dr. David Ludwig, director of the obesity program at Children's Hospital Boston. Psychological issues can not only foreshadow the development of obesity, but they can also follow ongoing struggles to control weight psychological assessments and interventions have become an vital part of a multidisciplinary approach to treating obesity, which includes the use of bariatric surgery Individuals who suffer from psychological disorders may have more difficulty controlling their consumption of food, exercising an adequate amount, and maintaining a healthy weight. Obesity is the result of “caloric imbalance” which is too few calories expended for the amount of calories consumed Food is often used as a coping mechanism by those with weight problems, particularly when they are sad, anxious, stressed, lonely, and frustrated In many obese individuals there appears to be a npermanent cycle of mood disturbance, overeating, and weight gain. In certain people there’s continuous pattern of using food to cope with emotions In addition to depression and anxiety, other risk factors include problematic eating behaviors such as “mindless eating,” Some obese people suffer from binge eating disorder

Binge eating disorder is characterized by: recurrent episodes of eating during a discrete period of time (at least 2 days a week over a 6 month period); eating quantities of food that are larger than most people would eat during a similar amount of time; a sense of lack of control during the episodes; and guilt or distress following the episodes BED is estimated to occur in approximately 2% of the general population and between 10% and 25% of the bariatric population. An important differentiation between BED and bulimia/anorexia is that BED is not associated with any regular compensatory behaviors, such as purging, fasting, or excessive exercise, so the majority of individuals with BED are overweight Night eating is another disorder that can lead to significant weight gain (NES) “ NES is characterized by excessive nighttime consumption (> 35% of daily calories after the evening meal), unhealthy eating patterns, “morning anorexia,” insomnia, and distress.4 NES occurs in approximately 1% of the general population and an estimated 5-20% of the bariatric population. More recently, NES has been viewed as a disorder of circadian rhythm that includes a delay of appetite in the mornings and the continuation of appetite and overeating into the night” Obese people suffer from low self-esteem as a result, and feel ñwith their bodies “Obese individuals have typically made multiple attempts to lose weight, with little or no success. Their failed attempts result in discouragement, frustration, hopelessness, and learned helplessness about the prospect of losing weight in the future on their own. For this reason, many turn to bariatric surgery as a last resort” A lack of energy balance most often causes overweight and obesity Energy balance means that your energy IN equals your energy OUT. Energy IN is the amount of energy or calories you get from food and drinks. Energy OUT is the amount of energy your body uses for things like breathing, digesting, and being physically active. To maintain a healthy weight, your energy IN and OUT don't have to balance exactly every day. It's the balance over time that helps you maintain a healthy weight. If you have the same amount of energy in and energy out over time your weight stays the same If you have more energy in than energy out over time you gain weight If you have more energy out than energy in over time you lose weight Obesity happens over time when you take in more calories than you burn Many Americans aren't very physically active. One reason for this is that many people spend hours in front of TVs and computers doing work, schoolwork, and playin games, more than 2 hours a day of regular TV viewing time has been linked to overweight and obesity. An Inactive lifestyle

Hormones are chemical messengers that regulate processes in our body. They are one factor in causing obesity. The hormones leptin and insulin, sex hormones and growth hormone influence our appetite, metabolism, and body fat distribution People who are obese have levels of these hormones that encourage abnormal metabolism and the accumulation of body fat Excesses or deficits of hormones can lead to obesity

The hormone leptin is produced by fat cells and is secreted into our bloodstream. Leptin reduces a person’s appetite by acting on specific centres of their brain to reduce their urge to eat Leptin also seems to control how the body manages its store of body fat. Because leptin is produced by fat, leptin levels tend to be higher in people who are obese than in people of normal weight. despite having higher levels of this appetite-reducing hormone, people who are obese aren’t as sensitive to the effects of leptin and, as a result, tend not to feel full during and after a meal.

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